The walkout involved about 250,000 taxi drivers across the nation, union officials said. The government scheduled more bus, subway and train services to help commuters.
Retail prices of LPG, used as an alternative fuel for most taxis in South Korea, jumped more than 50 percent over the past three years, the union said on its Web site.
Taxi drivers demanded the government stabilize LPG prices, give more fuel subsidies and address the oversupply of taxi licenses.
The union threatened to hold a large-scale protest in October and another nationwide strike in December if the government ignores its demands.
A woman walks past an empty taxi stop at the Jeju International Airport on June 20. South Korean tax drivers launch a one-day, nationwide strike over rising fuel costs. (Yonhap)