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This stylebook is an updated and expanded version of Yonhap Stylebook published in 2008. Its chief purpose is to provide our writers with clear rules regarding the usage of key terms and phrases, and to establish consistency for the sake of higher quality coverage.

We acknowledge with thanks the many contributions to the update of the stylebook from our writers and copyreaders.

Many of the entries in this stylebook include Korean words and phrases that frequently appear in Yonhap's copy. This should help resolve some of the persistent technical questions our writers encounter, and thus enable them to give readers a better grasp of our content.

Spelling rules have been determined by referencing the stylebooks of other major news agencies and Webster's New World Dictionary. Any exceptions outlined here, however, supersede the rules of other guides.

This handbook has been published electronically as well as in print. The electronic version contains the latest updates on style and word usage, and should be used to keep our writing contemporary and fresh.

Foreign Language News Service
Yonhap News Agency
April 2013

Our Mission

Yonhap News Agency plays a central role in the Korean press by delivering news and information to its customers in various parts of the world, as well as to newspapers, broadcasting firms, government agencies, business organizations and Internet portals on a real-time basis.

As the main news provider on Korean topics, Yonhap has a major responsibility to serve our clients and readers to our utmost abilities as well as appeal and attract new ones by providing unbiased, reliable, intelligent and informative, factual, honest and breaking news.

Our articles need to maintain a balance by interweaving basic background information on Korea and related topics that makes it easier for our readers around the world to follow and keep themselves up-to-date with informative news that interest viewers.

By adhering to the standards expressed above, Yonhap will continue to create a quality product that well serves those interested in learning more about Korea.

The Role of Journalists

The responsibilities of a journalist are ever changing in today’s fast-paced media industry, making it increasingly important for the writer never to overstep their role. They must serve as a middleman between the news and the reader, never dictating nor attempting to influence the audience. Most importantly, they must leave themselves and their opinions out of their articles.

They must be observant, interview sources, verify the accuracy of those sources’ accounts and craft news articles based on coverage in a way that provides readers an understanding of trends and events.

In addition, journalists are tasked with conveying the meaning and deeper significance of a particular incident or development so that readers are able to understand the event within its greater context.

Reporters should always bear in mind the five most important elements of news coverage: accuracy, objectivity, speed, simplicity and directness.

Ethically, they need to make sure they remain unbiased by choosing a wide range of articles that do not favor or single out a specific entity and use sources that are from both perspectives on a given issue.

Basic Guidelines

The following is a basic outline and guidelines for how Yonhap articles should be crafted.

> ATTRIBUTION: A news agency needs to be absolutely certain of the reliability of the sources quoted in its reports.

Label or describe the source of the information or opinions presented in the story as specifically as possible. Use names and titles when able. Otherwise be precise about the sources -- simply saying “sources said” is not adequate in a news story. Some examples of acceptable attributions are:

authoritative sources, official sources, government sources, administrative sources, diplomatic sources, industry sources, financial sources, company sources, party sources, monetary sources, ministry sources, department sources, agency sources, military sources, reliable sources, conference sources, informed sources, etc.

Try to avoid expressions such as “it was learned,” “it was understood” or “it was believed.”

Every piece of information in the story, including facts in the lead, should be attributed to a source unless the writer personally witnessed the event or the information is common knowledge.

It is sometimes permissible to drop the attribution in the lead if the source is mentioned in the second paragraph. Types of stories that require no attribution include those dealing with: public proceedings of the legislature, public meetings and conferences, open judicial proceedings, stocks, foreign exchange and other markets.

> BACKGROUND INFORMATION: All stories should contain adequate background information, especially as many of our readers are overseas and will likely not have much knowledge about the issues our agency covers. Our copy should be complete with relevant background and essential details, occasionally placed high in the story. All political, economic and social institutions likely to be unfamiliar to foreign readers should be explained when necessary.

Be careful when using background information, as it can be used in a way that talks down to the reader, especially when it’s used unnecessarily. A story that reads “A Japanese earthquake, which happened in March 2011, …” is very condescending because it assumes the reader is unintelligent on a major news article. Instead, the article should be written “The March 2011 earthquake in Japan…”

If for whatever particular reason, the reader is uninformed on a given topic, the reader can use their discretion whether they choose to do further research.

> FREQUENTLY USED SENTENCES: In our stories, there are sometimes sentences that are used frequently and in multiple articles. An example of this is a common paragraph for military stories that’s listed below.

The 1950-53 Korean War ended in a truce, not a peace treaty, leaving the two Koreas still technically at war. About 28,500 U.S. troops are stationed in South Korea to deter North Korean provocations.

Be careful as these types of sentences can be made factually inaccurate if situations change.

> GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION: As a rule, identify geographic locations in relation to an internationally known site.

For example: Reynosa, a Mexican city bordering the U.S. state of Texas. Or: Yeongwol, a city just over 200 kilometers east of Seoul.

The rule is intended to help international clients get a sense of localities mentioned in a story with which they might not be familiar. Consult APPENDIX: Distance to Seoul for the locations of South Korea’s major cities and towns relative to the capital.

> LEAD: The lead -- usually the first sentence of a news story, sometimes the first two -- should be short and crisp (around 20-25 words) so as to provide the proper context for the rest of the article. It should also hook the reader and give a good preview of what the rest of the article entails. Leave out unnecessary details and write only the most important essentials. Avoid redundant words or expressions in the lead.

Complicated names of panels, industry bodies and laws can be left out of the lead. The same goes for complex data in business stories; give the reader an indication of the data trend (N percent rise/fall) and leave exact figures for the rest of the story. Instead, focus on the reasons behind the trend.

Lead with the latest developments instead of older news. A story that reads, for example, “Popular singer Seo Tae-ji’s eighth album goes on sale on Tuesday” would be leading with old news, as the launch date was likely announced months earlier. Make stories timely with new information. Two better possible leads are:

Hundreds of fans lined up outside music shops around Seoul Tuesday in anticipation of the release of popular singer Seo Tae-ji’s eighth album.

Music retailers were bracing Tuesday for big crowds, as popular singer Seo Tae-ji’s eagerly awaited eighth album went on sale.

> NAMING NAMES: A named source is almost always better than an anonymous one as it gives more credence to the article. Do not reveal the identity of a subject or source when doing so is prohibited by law or when it may unnecessarily violate the person’s privacy or damage their reputation. Subjects whose names are not generally identified include juvenile criminals, the mentally ill, victims of sexual assault and patients afflicted by diseases that carry a social stigma.

> VOICE: Use active voice as often as possible. It does a better job of grabbing the reader’s attention and is more effective in communicating urgency in news copy. Use passive voice in certain circumstances where the deed is more important than the doer.

Word Usage, Words in the news


a, an Use the article a before a consonant sound: a dormitory, a one-year contract (one sounds as if it begins with a w sound), a united front. (united begins with a y sound), a European company (European begins with a y sound). Consonant letters in the English alphabets are B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y and Z. Y can sometimes be used as a vowel.

Use the article an before a vowel sound: an Asian man, an honor guard (the h in the word honor is silent), an FKI official (Acronyms beginning with F or L sound as if they begin with the letter e).

abbreviations, acronyms Use of an abbreviation or an acronym (a word made from the first letters of separate words) is acceptable to make for easier reading when repeating lengthy names like the Financial Supervisory Service. Be careful not to overuse. Use only when they are widely accepted and readily identifiable. Avoid “alphabet soup.”

When the reference is clear, short items like the association, the agency or the ministry suffice and are usually better understood than unfamiliar, obscure acronyms and contractions.

The names of countries are spelled out with the exception of the U.S. on first and subsequent references S. Korea and similar abbreviations may be used in headlines. U.S., as an adjective, may be used on first and subsequent references. For example, the U.S. Embassy in Seoul and U.S. military bases in South Korea. See United States

The same applies to the United Nations and related agencies, e.g. the United Nations but the U.N. Security Council, the U.N. General Assembly, etc.

The U.S. official told the United Nations that the United States is in favor of permanent Japanese and German membership in the U.N. Security Council.

Avoid using ROK (Republic of Korea) for South Korea, RP (Republic of the Philippines),PRC (People’s Republic of China), DPRK (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) for North Korea, etc. except in quotes.

Great Britain is usually shortened to Britain. In ordinary news items, avoid using U.K. for the United Kingdom except in quotes. The United Kingdom includes Northern Ireland. See Britain; United Kingdom

Long names of government agencies and other organizations, both domestic and international, may be contracted after they are spelled out with their abbreviations in parentheses. Limit this use to familiar ones, such as:
the World Trade Organization (WTO)
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
the World Health Organization (WHO)
the International Labor Organization (ILO)
the Federation of Korean Industries (FKI)
the Self-Defense Forces (SDF)

Names of political parties may be abbreviated.
the Democratic Party (DP), the Unified Progressive Party (UPP)
Note: Place the definite article before the names of political parties.

Well-known acronyms and abbreviations may be used on first reference but should be spelled out in full later.
the EU, UNESCO, the WHO, NATO, ASEAN, the ILO, the IMF, the OECD

Acronyms, pronounced like one word, are usually used without the definite article.

But those made up of three letters or less are used with the definite article, e.g. the Fed

The definite article is required for acronyms in which the letters are pronounced separately:the IMF, the U.N., the U.S., the EU, the OECD, the EAEC, the ITC, the IWC, the ERBD, the FTC, the GNP, the DP

No definite article is needed for acronyms for company names and abbreviated ones:POSCO, KEPCO, JAL, NIT, TEPCO, MELCO, JT

But the Bank of Korea is an exception. Say the BOK. Abbreviate company, corporation, incorporated, limited and other terms in the name of a business organization: Samsung Electronics Co., Korea Power Electric Power Co., Hynix Semiconductors Inc., Intel Corp., Warner Bros Inc., Reuters Holdings Plc. See corporate names

Always abbreviate months in headlines and datelines except for March, April, May, June and July: Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.

In text, do not abbreviate the above months. But abbreviate them if they are followed by figures, e.g. Jan. 25, Feb. 28, Aug. 20.

Time periods and time zones are abbreviated.
8:30 a.m. Korean time (but 2 a.m., 3 p.m., instead of 2:00 a.m., 3:00 p.m.), 1705 GMT (not 5:05 p.m. or 17:05 GMT)

A.D. for anno Domini is placed before the year because of its meaning (in the year of the Lord), while B.C. (before Christ) follows the year.
The town, founded in 132 B.C., was destroyed in A.D. 45.

Common commercial terms may be abbreviated.

B2B business to business
B2C business to consumer
B2G business to government
CDS credit default swap
CIF cost, insurance and freight
CF cost and freight
CI cost and insurance
DTI debt-to-income ratio
ELS equity-linked security
ELW equity-linked warrant
ETF exchange traded fund
FOB free on board
L/C letter of credit
LTV loan-to-value ratio
P/E price-to-earnings ratio
PEF private equity fund
VAT value-added tax

Do not abbreviate mount when used with the name of a mountain except in slugs and headlines: Mount Nam, Mount Halla, Mount Kumgang, Mount Everest (not Mt. Nam, Mt. Halla, etc.)

Plurals of abbreviations and letters are usually formed by adding “s” with no apostrophe:MiGs, POWs, ICBMs, VIPs

Celsius and Fahrenheit are abbreviated with no period following a figure, and degrees are dropped. Use the word minus, not a minus sign for temperatures below zero. See numerals

Wrong: 40 degrees C, -10 C Right: 40 C, minus 10 C

Use contractions in preference to abbreviations in headlines in order to avoid periods as much as possible.
government - gov’t, international- int’l, quarter - qtr, national- nat’l, association - ass’n, executive - exec, headquarters -hq, Commonwealth - C’wealth, dollar - dlr, dollars - dlrs, million - mln, billion - bln, trillion - tln

Abbreviate millimeter, centimeter, kilometer, kilogram, kiloliter, square kilometer, cubic centimeter, etc., on second reference with no “s” at the end, e.g. mm, cm, km, kg, sq, km, cc.
But always spell out meters, grams, liters and hectares.

Use such contractions as ain’t, aren’t, don’t, wouldn’t, etc., only in quotes.
Wrong: He said he wouldn’t go on a picnic.
Right: He said he will not go on a picnic.
Right: He said, “I won’t go on a picnic.”

Do not use the acronym if that organization appears only once in the story.

>technology abbreviations and acronyms The following words that are known better than their spelled-out forms can stand alone: CD, CD-ROM, CD-R, DVD, ISDN, LCD, LTE, TV, URL, VCR, Wi-Fi. For others, spell out on first reference.

The following list is for informational purposes.

ASICs application-specific integrated circuits (custom microchips)
AMOLED active matrix organic light-emitting diode
CAD computer-aided design, not computer-assisted design
CAM computer-aided manufacturing
CASE computer-aided software engineering
CFC chlorofluorocarbon(s)
CIM computer-integrated manufacturing
CT scanner computerized tomography scanner
DRAM dynamic random access memory
HDTV high-definition television
IC integrated circuit
ICT information and communications technology See ICT
IP internet protocol
IPTV Internet protocol television
ISDN integrated services digital network
LAN local area network
LCD liquid crystal display
LED liquid crystal display
LCD light-emitting diode
MPU microprocessing unit, also known as microprocessor
MRI magnetic-resonance imaging
MVMO mobile virtual network operator
OLED organic light-emitting diode
OSI open systems interconnection
PBX private-branch exchange
RFID radio frequency identification
RISC reduced instruction-set computing
ROM read-only memory
R & D research and development
SMS short message service
SRAM static random-access memory
UI user interface
USB universal serial bus
USIM universal subscriber identity module
VCR videocassette recorder
VPN virtual private network
WiBro Wireless Broadband See also WiBro
Wi-Fi wireless fidelity See also Wi-Fi

about, some Omit these words when the figure is meant to be an estimate or an approximation. Redundant: Sales are estimated at about US$10 billion. Better: Sales are estimated at US$10 billion.

accused of A person or organization is accused of doing something but criticized for doing something: The former minister is accused of receiving a bribe.

ad hoc When used as an adjective, it gets a hyphen. Not ad-hoc committee but ad hoc committee

administration Lowercase: the Park administration, the Obama administration

Aegukga The name of South Korea’s national anthem should be placed in quotation marks on all references with no definite article. The slow-paced, solemn-toned “Aegukga,” composed by late composer Ahn Eak-tai in 1936, has been used as the official South Korean national anthem since 1948 when the Republic of Korea, the country’s official name, was founded. English translation: Nation-loving Song.

AIDS, HIV Do not spell out unless there is some compelling reason to do so. OK for use on first reference and in headlines.

air force Use lower case as generic term unless it is part of a proper noun: the U.S. Air Force, but British air force, which is officially known as the Royal Air Force.

airline names Korean Air Lines Co., South Korea’s largest carrier. Korean Air on second reference and in headlines. Asiana Airlines Inc., the smaller of South Korea’s two major carriers. Asiana on second reference and in headlines.

airport Do not capitalize the word unless it is part of a proper name: Gimpo airport, Gimpo International Airport. South Korean airports that use the word international in their official English names are: Incheon International Airport, Gimpo International Airport, Gimhae International Airport, Jeju International Airport, Daegu International Airport, Gwangju International Airport, Cheongju International Airport, Yangyang International Airport, Muan International Airport.

There are also six airports that operate domestic flights: Ulsan Airport, Yeosu Airport, Sacheon Airport, Pohang Airport, Gunsan Airport, Wonju Airport.

Al-Jazeera TV network based in Qatar. Capitalize. The Arab TV network Al-Jazeera reported.

al-Qaida The most common form of the Arabic word, which means the Base, is al-Qaida. Not al Qaida, Al Qaeda.

alleged, allegedly Try to avoid overuse of the words. Instead, clarify who is making the allegation: Prosecutors suspect …., The man was arrested on suspicion of stealing the car. The man was arrested in connection with the stolen car. If not arrested, use a more neutral term such as reported: He is reported to have received bribes.

If proved in a court of law, an allegation or offense is treated as a fact rather than an allegation: The court sentenced him to two years in jail for receiving bribes. See accused of, arrest, indict.

all-time, all time All-time low approval rating, but the greatest singers of all time.

Ambassador Capitalize after the name of a country: South Korean Ambassador to United States Lee Tae-sik, Japanese Ambassador to South Korea Toshinori Shigeie. See embassy.

AMCHAM The American Chamber of Commerce in Korea. Spell out on first reference.

Amnok River Refers to as a border river between North Korea and China. Avoid mentioning the Chinese name the Yalu River on first reference but preferably say “also known as the Yalu River in ” on second reference. The 795-kilometer river starts from Mount Paekdu on North Korea’s border with China and runs southwestward into the sea off Dandong, China’s Liaoning Province. Across the river lies the Friendship Bridge of China and North Korea, which links the Chinese port city of Dandong to Sinuiju in North Korea. The two countries have jointly developed special economic zones on the Hwanggumpyong and Wihwa islands along the river. See also North Korea’s special economic zones, Mount Paekdu, Duman River, Yalu River.

Arctic Council: An intergovernmental body that sets rules for the development of the Arctic region. Launched in 1996, the organization aims to address climate change, the needs of the Arctic’s indigenous people and other regional issues. The eight member states are Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States.

In May 2013, South Korea gained a permanent observer status along with five other countries -- China, India, Italy, Japan and Singapore -- joining the existing group of Britain, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain.

ARF Acronym for the ASEAN Regional Forum is acceptable on second reference. See ASEAN Regional Forum.

Arirang bond A Korean won-denominated bond issued in South Korea by a non-Korean company and subject to the local regulations. See kimchi bonds, samurai bonds.

Arirang 3 satellite South Korea’s third multipurpose satellite launched in May 2012. The satellite has an electro-optical camera with a resolution of around 70 centimeters that allows Seoul to take precise pictures of weather front developments and the earth’s surface. It currently is orbiting the Earth at an average altitude of 685 kilometers.

As of May 2012, South Korea has three state satellites -- the Arirang 2, 3 and Chollian -- and three civil satellites -- the Koreasat 5, Olleh 1 and Hanbyul -- operating in the orbit.

South Korea plans to send off the Arirang 5 satellite from Russia by the end of 2013. The new satellite equipped with a synthetic aperture radar would allow South Korea to monitor North Korea’s military facilities and missile movements even in cloudy conditions and at night. South Korea also plans to launch two other advanced multipurpose satellites in 2014 and 2019. See satellite names.

Armistice Agreement Signed on July 27, 1953, between the U.S.-led U.N. Command (UNC) and a North Korea-China alliance, the Armistice Agreement effectively ended the 1950-53 Korean War. As the parties did not sign a formal peace agreement, the two Koreas remain technically at war. The UNC monitors the armistice. See UNCMAC

army Use lower case as generic term unless it is part of a proper noun: the U.S. Army, but the North Korean army, which is officially known as the Korean People’s Army.

arrest Avoid any suggestion of guilt prior to the outcome of a trial. Write arrested on suspicion of murder or arrested in connection with a bribe case, instead of arrested for murder or arrested for bribery. See accused of, alleged, indict.

artillery The following list is for informational purposes.

- self-propelled artillery: Modern self-propelled artillery refers to howitzers placed on a tracked or wheeled vehicle. Such an arrangement gives these weapons high degree of mobility and if such vehicles are given armored protection, enhances their survivability on the battlefield. Many self-propelled artillery systems have turrets that traverse 360-degrees like that of a tank.

- towed artillery: Towed artillery refers to cannons and howitzers that are towed to their firing position by a wheeled or tracked vehicle. These are cheaper to produce than self-propelled artillery systems but are more vulnerable to counter-battery fire. They also require more time to move.

- multiple rocket launcher system (MRLS): MRLS are rocket launchers that can send large number of rocket to their target within a very short period of time. Various calibers of rockets are used by launcher systems that are usually placed on the back of trucks or in armored tracked vehicles.

- recoilless guns: These guns are usually of smaller caliber than howitzers and are employed to combat armored vehicles and destroy bunkers. Because they have no recoil, these weapons can be placed on light trucks and jeeps.

ASEAN Regional Forum Acronym ARF OK in headlines and second reference. The ARF brings together the 10-member ASEAN, Australia, Canada, the European Union, New Zealand, the United States, Russia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor, Pakistan, South Korea, North Korea, Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Bangladeshi, China, Japan and India. See ASEAN

ASEAN+3 Acceptable only in headlines. In story, write foreign ministerial talks of ASEAN, South Korea, China and Japan or the ASEAN-plus-three foreign ministerial talks.

Asia-Europe Meeting Spell out on first reference. Acronym ASEM is OK for use in headlines and later reference. ASEM groups the 27 member states of the European Union, the 10 ASEAN nations plus six other Asian countries – South Korea, China, Japan, India, Mongolia and Pakistan.

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum Acronym APEC is OK for use on first reference. Spell out on second reference. APEC, set up in 1989, consists of Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, the United States and Vietnam.

Association of Southeast Asian Nations OK to use acronym ASEAN on first reference and in headlines. The 10-member ASEAN groups Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.


baduk Use the Korean word for the strategic two-person board game – which is popular in the two Koreas, China and Japan -- rather than the Chinese weiqi and the Japanese go. Place in quotes.

Baengnyeong Island Not Baekryeong Island

bank names When giving names of banks, it is not necessary to include Ltd. or PLC in the title: the Bank of Korea, Barclays Bank.

Some company names are preceded by the definite article the, but this is usually omitted except in some bank names in the form of the Bank of (geographical name): the Bank of Korea, the Industrial Bank of Korea, the Bank of Japan, the People's Bank of China

B-boy, B-girl A person devoted to hip-hop culture, specifically the breakdance element. Hyphenated

BEXCO Busan Exhibition and Convention Center is a major convention center in the South Korean port city of Busan. Abbreviation is OK for use on second reference. See COEX, KINTEX.

BIE Acronym for the Paris-based Bureau of International Exhibitions is OK on second reference and in headlines. The BIE selects the host city for the World Expo. In 2007, the bureau selected the South Korean coastal city of Yeosu to host the 2012 World Expo. See World Expo.

Big Two, Big Three Always capitalize

bioethanol Typically produced from sugarcane, switch grass, corn or grain, bioethanol is often blended with gasoline to fuel cars. While it is a renewable energy source, questions have been raised as to whether the practice of growing food crops for fuel is truly environmentally friendly. Some critics have also blamed recent worldwide grain shortages on the increasingly popularity of bioethanol.

biofuel Not bio-fuel.

bio-gasoline Refers to gasoline blended with bioethanol, which has become popular in Europe and the U.S. amid global efforts to curb the emission of greenhouse gases. Bio-gasoline is made by blending regular gasoline with a certain percent of ethyl tertiary butyl ether, or ETBE. ETBE, an oxygenated component is made by combining plant-derived ethanol with a petroleum product, isobutylene.

birthrate One word. Not birth rate. See fertility rate

bit The capacity of chips is given in bits. Don’t confuse with byte. See byte.

> megabit: Usually used to show transmission speeds and memory chip sizes, as in 4-megabit DRAM. Acronym Mb is OK in headlines and on second reference. The fusion memory has a capacity of 512 megabits.

> megabits per second: Acronym mbps is OK when accompanied by a number: 10 mbps

> gigabit: 1 billion bits. Spell out on first reference. Acronym Gb is OK in headlines and second reference. It’s 1GB with no space: 1Gb OneDRAM, The company plans to mass-produce a 1 gigabit fusion chip.

blind See handicapped.

BOK The Bank of Korea. Acceptable in headlines and second reference.

bloc An alliance bound by shared principles, ideology, or economic interests. A group of countries, voters or politicians sharing common goals. The term bloc is found in the following phrases: Eastern bloc, voting bloc, trade bloc. Do not confuse with block.

blog Short for Web log. A chronologically organized, instantly updatable Internet medium often used as a personal journal, though newspapers and other major media outlets have adopted the technology to keep pace with a 24-hour news cycle. A blog author is known as a blogger. Use blogosphere to refer to a large network of blogs in describing a trend: Sen. McCain’s choice of Sarah Palin as a running mate sent ripples through the blogosphere.

Bluetooth A data transmission technology that allows the wireless exchange of digital data between computers, mobile phones and home appliances within a range of about 10 meters.

bottom out, hit bottom When used in reference to the economy, bottom out means that something has fallen to its lowest point and gives the impression that it may now begin to improve. There are signs that the recession has bottomed out.
In contrast, hit bottom means something has fallen to its worst level and may stay there unless other factors come into play. The North Korean economy hit bottom in the early 1990s with the dissolving of the Soviet bloc.

bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE is acceptable on second reference. See mad cow disease

boy, girl May be used if subject is under 18 years of age. Use man or woman afterwards.

BRIC The acronym refers to Brazil, Russia, India and China. Acceptable on first reference: the so-called BRIC emerging economies. But enumerate the four countries later.

Britain Refers to the sovereign state comprising Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Do not use United Kingdom unless it is used in quotes or as part of a proper name. See United Kingdom

business group names Capitalize group when used as part of a business group, with no definite article: Samsung Group, Hanjin Group, Hyundai Group..

business-to-business B2B acceptable in headlines and second reference.

business-to-consumer B2C acceptable in headlines and second reference

businessman, businessmen, businesspeople, businesswoman, businesswomen See gender

byte Data storage capacity for memory devices is given usually in bytes. Don’t confuse with bit. A byte consists of eight bits. See bit.

> megabyte: Refers to computer memory. Use acronym MB on second references and in headlines; otherwise spell out: The new drive can read up to 200 megabytes of data per second.

> gigabytes: 1 billion bytes. Spell out on first reference. Acronym GB is OK in headlines and on second reference: The smart phone has 16 gigabytes of memory space


cabinet Capitalize when referring to a body of advisors of state: Lee presided over a Cabinet meeting. Lee’s entire Cabinet tendered its resignation.

capacity The maximum amount a given machine or facility is capable of producing per unit of time. Do not confuse with output, which means the amount a given machine or facility actually produces per unit of time.

capitalization Avoid unnecessary capitals. Abide by the following principles.

> proper nouns: Capitalize nouns that constitute the unique identification for a specific person, place or thing: John, Mary, America, Boston, England

Some common nouns receive proper noun status when they are used as the name of a particular entity: Democrat (in reference to the political party), Hyundai Motors Co., General Electric Co., Pioneer Electronic Corp.

> common nouns: Capitalize such as party, river, sea and street when they are an integral part of the full name of a person, place or thing: the Democratic Party, the Han River, the Fleet Street, the East Sea

These common nouns should be lowercase when standing alone on subsequent references: the party, the street, the river.

Common noun elements of a name should be lowercase in all plural uses:
the Republican and Democratic parties, the Han and Bukhan rivers, the Jongno and Insadong streets. the Finance and Construction ministries, LG and SK Securities companies (Note capitalized S)

> derivative: Capitalize words that are derived from a proper noun and still depend on it for their meaning: Korean, Chinese, Japanese. American. Christian, Marxism, Shakespearean

Do not capitalize communism, socialism and capitalism if they refer to political philosophies rather than specific parties: Left-wing Socialists have stopped supporting communist ideas.

Words that are derived from a proper noun but no longer depend on it for their meaning should be lowercase: manhattan cocktail, french fries, malapropism, quixotism, venetian blind, china, japan, alpine, nordic skiing, greco-roman wrestling

> publications: Capitalize full names of newspapers, periodicals and news agencies. The JoongAng Daily (but lowercase the definite article in such a sentence as The politician was quoted by the JoongAng Daily as saying), Yonhap News Agency, Kyodo News, Vietnam News Agency, Philippine News Agency, Xinhua News Agency, China News Service (but Itar-Tass news agency, Interfax news agency. Bernama news agency, Antara news agency)

> sentences: Capitalize the first word in all sentences, quoted statements, direct quotations and slogans. In poetry, capital letters are used for the first words of some phrases that would not be capitalized in prose.

> works: Capitalize the principal words in the titles of anthems. books, movies, plays, poems, operas, songs, radio and television programs, lectures, speeches and works of art.

> titles: Terms that are job descriptions rather than formal titles should be lowercase: former actor Yu In-chon, former movie star Ronald Reagan, astronaut John Glenn, peanut farmer Jimmy Carter

-- academic titles: Capitalize and spell out such formal titles as dean, president, chancellor, chairman, etc. when they precede a name. Lowercase elsewhere.

-- cabinet titles: Capitalize the full title when used before a name, lowercase in other uses: Prime Minister Chung Hong-won, Culture, Sports and Tourism Minister Yoo Jin-ryong.

-- government, administration and cabinet: Always lowercase. The Park Geun-hye government, the U.S. government, the Obama administration, the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.

-- legislative title: Use Sen. as a formal title before a name. Abbreviated Rep. can be used for a member of the National Assembly or the U.S. House of Representatives. Spell out and lowercase in plural or other usage. See titles.

Capitalize titles for formal, organizational offices within a legislative body when they are used before a name. National Assembly Speaker Kang Chang-hee, Majority Leader Eric Cantor, Robert Menendez, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee

-- military title: A military rank is capitalized and abbreviated when used as a formal title immediately before an individual's name. A title should appear before the full name of any member of the military on first reference.

Spell out and lowercase all titles when they are used on second and subsequent references as substitutes for the individual's name. Gen. Kim Tae-young arrived Monday. The general plans to review the troops Tuesday.

Capitalize formal and quasi-formal names of legislative bodies, parties, and Diet, congressional, parliamentary and party committees.
the National Assembly, the Diet, the Parliament, the Congress, the House of Representatives, the Chinese Communist Party Politburo, the House of Councilors Budget Committee

The words congressional and parliamentary are not capitalized unless they are part of a proper noun: congressional approval, parliamentary strength

> constitutions: Capitalize constitution when referring to a document outlining the basic principles and laws of a country only after it has been approved. Before that process, use lowercase. But constitutional rights (lowercase when used as an adjective). The Constitution stipulates, A draft constitution was presented for debate.

> laws, bills: Capitalize the titles of laws and bills when part of a full name. But lowercase when standing alone: the Antimonopoly Law, the U.N. Peacekeeping Cooperation Bill, the peacekeeping cooperation bill

Capitalize full names of courts, and justices and judges: the Supreme Court, the Seoul High Court, Chief Justice Lee Yong-hoon, Presiding Judge Hong Jung-pyo
with the given name hyphenated: Ma Ying-jeou, Chen Shui-bian, Chiang Kai-shek, Lee Teng-hui

> provinces, states, prefectures: Capitalize province, state and prefecture: Gyeonggi Province, Washington State, Nagano Prefecture, Fujian Provinc. But: the state of Washington, Gangwon and North Gyeongsang provinces

> others: Capitalize recognized terms for groupings or concepts. Big Three South Korean chipmakers, Big Two U.S.. automakers, the Free World, South-North dialogue

CCK The Christian Council of Korea, a group of conservative churches in South Korea. Acronym is OK in headlines and on second reference.

CFC The South Korea-U.S. Combined Forces Command. Acceptable on second reference. See South Korea-U.S. Combined Forces Command

chaebol South Korean corporate groups formed by several powerful families. Not jaebeol. Plural is also chaebol. Use quotes and define on first reference.

Cheonggye Stream The 5.8-kilometer stream was covered when South Korea was rebuilt from the rubble of the 1950-53 Korean War, and was restored in October 2005 by then Seoul Mayor Lee Myung-bak. It begins at Cheongye Stream Square near Gwanghwamun in north-central Seoul and flows east, eventually letting out into the Han River.

Cheong Wa Dae The presidential office should not be spelled as one word or referred to as the Blue House. Include description: the presidential office Cheong Wa Dae said in a press release ••

Cheorwon The South Korean border city is not spelled Cheolwon.

Chinese names Use the Pinyin spelling for Chinese names from mainland China. Family name first, followed by the given name. The given name is not hyphenated : Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Hu Jintao, Deng Xiaoping.

Chinese names (Taiwan): Follow the Wade-Giles Romanization system in spelling with the given name hyphenated: Ma Ying-jeou, Chen Shui-bian, Chiang Kai-shek, Lee Teng-hui

Chinese premier Not Chinese prime minister. Chinese Premier Xi Jinping

Chinese special economic zones There are five. Hainan special economic zone (Hainan Province), Shantou special economic zone (Guangdong Province), Shenzhen special economic zone (Guangdong Province), Xiamen special economic zone (Fujian Province), Zhuhai special economic zone (Guangdong Province)

Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference China's top political advisory body that advises the government but does not have any legislative powers.

Communist Party of China China’s ruling political party. The CPC is OK on second reference. The party’s current leader is the party’s general secretary, Xi Jinping, who also heads the party’s Central Military Commission. As of March, 2013, Xi and six other leaders – Li Keqiang, Zhang Dejiang, Yu Zhengsheng, Liu Yunshan, Wang Qishan and Zhang Gaoli – comprise the seven-member Standing Committee of the party’s Political Bureau, the country’s top decision-making body.

Chongryon The Korean acronym refers to the pro-Pyongyang General Association of Korean Residents in Japan, and may be used on second reference and in headlines. Include a brief explanation when appropriate: Chongryon, founded in 1955, serves as a de facto representative of North Korea in Japan as the two nations have no diplomatic relations.

Chuseok The autumn harvest celebration falls on Aug. 15 of the Lunar Calendar and is one of Korea’s major traditional holidays. Many Koreans take long trips to their hometowns on Chuseok to visit family and pay homage to ancestors. Do not refer to as Korean Thanksgiving. See Seol

City Hall Do not use the City Hall when referring to a municipal government: the Busan metropolitan government. Use uppercase when part of a formal name: Busan City Hall

CJD Acronym for Creutzfeldt Jacob disease, a fatal brain disorder. See vCJD, mad cow disease

coast guard Capitalize when used as part of a proper name: the Korea Coast Guard

COEX Acronym for the Convention and Exhibition Center, located in Seoul’s Gangnam Ward. OK in headlines. Spell out on first reference. See BEXCO, KINTEX

comfort women Refers to women, mostly from the Korean Peninsula, who were lured or forcibly sent to front-line brothels for Japanese troops before and during World War II. Many historians say most of the estimated 200,000 young girls who were forced to serve as sex slaves from the 1930s to 1945 were young girls from Korea, which was a Japanese colony from 1910-1945. See Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan

Commonwealth of Independent States The successor entity to the Soviet Union consists of 11 former Soviet Republics as of 2008. Acronym CIS is OK on second reference.

Member nations (noun and adjective forms, capitals)

Armenia, Armenian, Yerevan
Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani, Baku
Belarus, Belarussian, Minsk
Kazakhstan, Kazakh, Astana *The largest city in Kazakhstan is Almaty.
Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyz, Bishkek
Moldova, Moldovan, Chisinau,
Russia, Russian, Moscow,
Tajikistan, Tajik, Dushanbe
Turkmenistan, Turkmen, Ashgabat
Ukraine, Ukrainian, Kiev
Uzbekistan, Uzbek, Tashkent

Turkmenistan (Turkmen, Ashgabat) discontinued permanent membership in 2005 and now is an associate member. Georgia (Georgian, Tbilisi) left the Russia-dominated regional alliance in 2008. The three Baltic republics – Estonia (Estonian, Tallinn), Latvia (Latvian, Riga ) and Lithuania (Lithuanian, Vilnius) – are now independent countries.


compound words The tendency in modern English is in favor of printing compounds as one solid word unless there is a good reason to do otherwise, for the sake of avoiding possible misunderstanding or making for easier reading.

Exception is the word very, e.g. very short-term interest rates.

The hyphen should be used to avoid confusion.
A small business leader (a business leader who is small).
A small-business leader (a leader of small business).
A man eating tiger was shot (a man was shot).
A man-eating tiger was shot (a tiger was shot).

The hyphen serves to distinguish the meaning of similarly spelled words like recover and re-cover, recreate and re-create, and resign and re-sign.

Compounds of three or more words usually take hyphens: ban-the-bomb campaigners, do-it-yourself fan, mother-in-law, door-to-door service, middle-of the-road party, 1000-ton-a-year plant

Use the hyphen to tie a single letter to a word: X-ray, A-bomb, H-bomb

Use a hyphen for ages expressed as adjectives before nouns or as substitutes for nouns. Always use figures: 5-month-old baby girl. She is 5 years old. Use a hyphen to join spelled out fractions: two-thirds, three-fourths. But: one-third, one-10th, one-l,000th

No hyphens are needed in monetary figures, areas, volumes and percentages:
the 1,110 won level, a US$300 million takeover, a 1 won bid, a $32 billion budget, 2.7 percentage point increase, 3.2 million sq. meter plant, 11 cu. meter tank.

Do not hyphenate an adverb ending in ly to form a compound adjective: a newly appointed director, not a newly-appointed director. Other examples: recently discovered, badly damaged, freshly supplied, mistakenly informed.

The following are examples of compound words and phrases, some with a hyphen. Several are exceptions to Webster's.

stock-index arbitrage trading, very short-term rates, small-lot deposits, 100-meter race, 100-ton ship, six-month yield, 1-megabit chip, 12-year-old boy, 7 percent level, 9 percent range,nonprofit minicar, minivehicle, minitruck, mini supercomputer, supercomputer cross trading, cross transactions, cross dealings, hourlong, weeklong, monthlong, yearlong, (not hourlong, week-long, etc.) pretax profit, current account deficit

corporate names Corporation is abbreviated to Corp., Company to Co. and Incorporated to Inc. Other abbreviations for foreign company designations are:

AB Aktiebolag (Sweden)
AG Aktiengesellschaft (Germany)
Bhd Berhad (Malaysia)
Cie Compagnie (France)
GmbH Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung (Germany)
Inc. Incorporated (U.S.)
KGaA Konmandigesellschaft auf Aktien (Germany)
KK Kabushiki Kaisha (Japan)
NV Naamloze Vennotschap (Holland)
Plc Public Limited (Britain)
Pte Private (Singapore)
SA Societe Anonyme (France)
SA Sociedad Anonima (Spain)
SARL/Sarl Societe Anomyne a Responsabilite Limitee
SpA Societe per Azionin (Italy)

Drop Ltd. from Co., Ltd: DC Chemical Co. Ltd. becomes DC Chemical Co. Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. becomes Nissan Motor Co.

Retain Ltd. when the company name does not include Co.: LG Telecom Ltd. stays as LG Telecom Ltd.

All designations -- Ltd. Co., Corp. Inc., etc. -- are usually omitted in daily stock market reports.

On second reference, just give the name: Samsung, Hyundai, Toyota, Texas Instruments.

Commas in company names, such as top chipmaker SK hynix, Inc. are also omitted. Say SK hynix Inc. and Tokico Inc.

Company names should usually be spelled with only the first letter capitalized and the remainder of each word in lowercase letters (see above). Exceptions are those that are derived from acronyms of original names, e.g. KT, SK, POSCO and NTT.

No definite article is required for public entities and corporations, e.g. Korea Land Corp. But the article is necessary when such words as governmental and state-run are added to the name: the state-run Korea Asset Management Corp.

The article is needed for those having such words as Institute, Center, Institution, Association, Organization, Fund, Service and Agency: the Korea Trade-Investment Agency (KOTRA), the Samsung Economic Research Institute (SERI) the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). See airline name; bank names; business group names

courts the Seoul Central District Court, the Seoul Western District Court, the Seoul Eastern District Court, the Seoul Northern District Court

cross-shareholding Refers to the practice of companies strengthening their ties by holding stock in each other.

cubic centimeter Use the abbreviation cc on first reference when it accompanies a number, with a space between the number and cc: a car with an engine displacement of 1,200 cc.

cubic meters Abbreviation is cu. meters, with a space between the number and the word cubic: 10 cu. meters.

currencies Use the full name of a currency: The won rose against the U.S. dollar. But use abbreviation, as below, when a currency is followed by a figure: Australia invested A$1.5 billion in South Korea.

Convert first references to all currencies including the won to U.S. dollars and put the sum in parentheses.

Currency abbreviations:

Australia dollar A$1,000
Britain pound 1,000 pounds
Brunei dollar B$1,000
Canada dollar C$1,000
European Union euro 1,000 euros
France franc FFr1,000
Germany mark DM1,000
Hong Kong dollar HK$1,000
India rupee 1,000 rupees
Indonesia rupiah 1,000 rupiah
Japan yen 1,000 yen
Malaysia ringgit 1,000 ringgit
Netherlands guilder 1,000 guilders
New Zealand dollar NZ$1,000
Pakistan rupee 1,000 rupee
Philippines peso 1,000 pesos
Russia ruble 1,000 rubles
Singapore dollar S$1,000
South Korea won 1,000 won
Sweden krona ASKr1,000
Switzerland franc SFr1,000
Taiwan New Taiwan dollar NT$1,000
Thailand baht 1,000 baht
Vietnam dong 1,000 dongs


dates Spell out months when they stand alone or followed only by the year: Orders for January 2007 rose 7 percent. No comma between the month and the year.

Abbreviate months when referring to specific dates: Aug. 7, 2008. Spell out for range: January-February, not Jan.-Feb.

Proper abbreviations: Jan. Feb. (March through July are not abbreviated) Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. See time

deaf See handicapped

death Do not use deceased, succumbed or euphemisms such as passed away except in quotes. Use dying, died or dead instead. Do not apply the term sudden death to anyone who had been sick or had been receiving medical treatment.

decibel, decibels Write out first and use abbreviation dB: 90 dB

Defcon Not DEFCON. Refers to a five-stage nationwide alert level for the South Korean military to cope with North Korea’s all-out invasion of the South. It is the same in the U.S. Army. Defcon 1 is the highest combat alert level. Since the 1950-53 Korean War, South Korea has almost always been at Defcon 4, but has twice raised the alert level to Defcon 3. See Jindotgae alert, Watchcon.

Demilitarized Zone The 4 kilometer-wide buffer zone along the inter-Korean border may be referred to as the DMZ on second reference. The Panmunjom truce village straddles the border inside the zone.

South Korea set up the Civilian Control Zone in 1954 for military installations along the southern boundary of the DMZ. People require military permits to enter, and the government restricts land use and development in the area, which is as wide as 15 kilometers in some places.

Democratic Labor Party The now-defuct progressive labor-friendly party. Abbreviation DLP is acceptable on second reference.

Democratic Party South Korea’s main opposition Democratic Party is used on first reference. DP on second reference. Formerly the Democratic United Party.

Democratic People's Republic of Korea The official name of North Korea. Do not use the abbreviation DPRK, except in quotes.

direction, region Use lowercase when referring to direction: north, south, east, west. Capitalize them when referring to regions:

the East and the West
Eastern Europe, an East European country, E. European (in headlines)
Western Europe, a Western European country, W. European (in headlines)
Middle East, Middle Eastern, Mideast (in headlines)
Southeast Asia, a Southeast Asian country, S.E. Asian (in headlines)
Northeast Asia, a Northeast Asian country, N.E. Asian (in headlines)
east coast, west coast, southern coast, northern coast

Dokdo Refer to as the South Korean administered islets of Dokdo. South Korea maintains that it holds sovereignty over the islets, though Japan considers them to be disputed territory.
Avoid mentioning the Japanese names Takeshima or the Sea of Japan -- which Korea refers to as Dokdo and the East Sea , respectively -- unless such information is relevant to the story.
Located 87.4 kilometers southeast of Ulleung Island, South Korea’s North Gyeongsang Province, and 157.5 kilometers northwest of the Oki islands in Japan’s Shimane Prefecture, Dokdo consists of two small islets and a cluster of reefs with a total area of 187,453 square meters, according to the Web site of the state-run National Geographic Information Institute.
Historians say that Japan incorporated Dokdo as part of Shimane in 1905, five years ahead of its 1910-45 colonization of the Korean Peninsula . However, according to "Samguksagi” -- a record of the three ancient Korean kingdoms of Koguryo, Baekje and Silla -- Korea’s ownership of the islets dates back to A.D. 512. The record indicates Dokdo became a Korean territory under the Silla Kingdom through the annexation of Usanguk, a small maritime nation that had governed Dokdo and its neighboring Ulleng Island.
South Korea has effectively ruled the islets since 1954 when the country stationed coast guard personnel on the smaller of the islets.

dolharubang Refers to the statue that is the symbol of Jeju Island, South Korea’s largest island. Use it with quotes.

drunk, drunken Drunken driving or drunken driver. Not drunk driving. But: The driver was drunk. Not the driver was drunken.

dubu Use this Korean word with quotes, instead of the Japanese equivalent of tofu, when referring to Korean-made soybean curd.

Duman River Refers to as a border river that lies among North Korea, China and Russia. Avoid mentioning the Chinese name the Tumen River on first reference but preferably say “the river also known as the Tumen River in Chinese” on second reference. See Amnok River.


earth Capitalize when used as the proper name of the planet. Otherwise use lowercase: the earth's surface, Yi returned to Earth

earthquakes Do not use the Richter scale when referring to the measurement of an earthquake’s force. The Richter scale, named after Dr. Charles F. Richter, is no longer widely used. Earthquakes are measured in magnitude, with each whole-number increase representing a 10-fold jump in the strength of the quake. For example, a 6.2 earthquake would be 10 times stronger than a 5.2 quake.

Magnitude is a measure of the size of an earthquake as calculated from ground motion recorded on a seismograph. The unit is usually reported simply as magnitude 2.4, for example, without specifying the scale being used..

When reporting an earthquake, initial measurements are given as preliminary magnitude, since measurements are often revised hours or days after the quake takes place. Quake and temblor (not tremblor) can be used in place of earthquake. Tremors are small movements of the earth that normally follow a major earthquake. The earthquake that struck China's Sichuan Province on May 12, 2008 was a magnitude 8.0.

>epicenter, focus Epicenter refers to the point on the earth’s surface above the underground center of an earthquake, which is called the focus or hypocenter.

earnings Roughly defined as revenues minus the cost of sales, operating expenses and taxes over a given period of time. Earnings are often the single most important determinant of a stock's price.

Stories on earnings should first address any comparative fluctuations using the same period from the previous year, and explain reasons for the change. The use of percentages or figures in the lead should be minimized. Leads should strive to provide readers with instant perspective.

Articles on earnings reports should also include details on stock market price following a report’s release. This illustrates how investors view the results. Quotes from analysts can provide insight into the market's reaction or lend credibility to the explanation provided in the lead, and helps keep the story from becoming overloaded with numbers.

A company's future business projections are also important. If a company forecasts a big loss in the current year or a big jump in sales, it should be folded into the story. Do not assume that readers are familiar with the company; include details as to what kind of business it does and how big its presence is in the industry.

East Asia Summit Acronym EAS is acceptable on second reference. The EAS, initiated by ASEAN, is an annual meeting that brings together the 10 ASEAN countries plus six other Asia-Pacific nations: South Korea, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and India . See also ASEAN

East Sea Use East Sea when referring to the body of water between South Korea and Japan . Avoid using the Sea of Japan.

e-business OK on first reference

e-commerce OK on first reference

email Not e-mail. OK on first reference

embassy Capitalize after the name of a country: the South Korean Embassy in Washington, the British Embassy in Seoul. See ambassador

E-Mart South Korea’s largest discount retailer, affiliated with Shinsegae Co. Not E-mart or Emart. cf. the world’s top retailer Wal-Mart.

engine displacement Use the abbreviation of cubic centimeters, cc, when referring to an auto engine displacement. Insert a space between the figure and the cc: an engine displacement of 1,500 cc, a new 1,500 cc compact minivan.

e-sports OK on first reference to mean electronic sports. The term generally describes video games in which users play soccer, basketball, etc. Do not confuse with terms like competitive gaming or cyber athletics, which refer to video game competitions.

EUCCK The European Union Chamber of Commerce in Korea. Spell out on first reference.

European Union Abbreviation EU is OK in headlines and second reference.

EU member nations (27 as of 2013)

Austria, Belgium, Britain, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden.

Eximbank The Export-Import Bank of Korea. Retain the definite article the. Abbreviation is OK for use on second reference and in headlines.


FKI South Korea’s big business lobby, the Federation of Korean Industries , should be spell out first reference:

Fed The Federal Reserve Board. Do not use acronym FRB. Retain the definite article.

fertility rate The average number of children born to a woman aged between 15 and 49, also called total fertility rate. See birthrate

first lady Always lowercase, as first lady is not a formal title: first lady Kim Yun-ok.

forex The abbreviation for foreign exchange is acceptable only in headlines.

former, then Be careful not to make a wrong usage of the word former or then. Former President refers to someone who used to be President; then President is used when describing the actions of the President at the time. Do not use a hyphen with then.

Kim Koo, the former head of the Korean provisional government, was assassinated by a second lieutenant of the Korean Army in 1949. Though the reason is not known, a conspiracy theory is that then President Rhee Syng-man masterminded the incident to take control of the country. Here, the usage of former means Kim was no longer the provisional government’s chief at the time of 1949, one year after South Korea was founded. The usage of then means Rhee was president in 1949, when the incident took place. In case that there is a time element, 1949 in this sentence, the word then can be omitted. If the word former was used in its place, it would change the sentence to mean Rhee was already out of office at the time of the incident.

The state-run debt clearer Korea Asset Management Corp. was the former biggest shareholder of Ssangyong Engineering & Construction with a 38.8 percent stake. In this sentence, the debt clearer is no longer Ssangyong’s biggest shareholder.

free trade agreement FTA on second reference is OK to use. South Korea, an export-driven economy, has been seeking to forge free trade deals with other nations in a bid to expand its overseas markets. The free free trade deal with Chile was South Korea's first of its kind, paving the way for Asia's fourth-largest economy to venture into the South Latin American region. The deal went into effect in 2004.

South Korea whose exports account for more than half of its gross domestic product implemented free trade deals with major economies as well. The free trade deal with the European Union went into force in July 2011, and a similar deal with the United States was implemented in March 2012.

As of March 2013, South Korea is set to implement free trade pacts with Turkey and Colombia. South Korea is currently enforcing eight free trade agreements (FTAs) with 45 countries, including the United States and the European Union. The country is also engaged in or preparing for negotiations for 17 other FTAs involving 39 countries.

In November 2012, South Korea, China and Japan, declared the start of free trade talks aimed at boosting their trade, a move also seen to help ease territorial tension in the Northeast Asian region. South Korea and China are currently in talks over their bilateral free trade agreement. Free trade talks between Seoul and Tokyo have been stalled since late 2004, mainly because of Japan's reluctance to lower tariffs on agricultural goods. The Northeast Asian nations' push for the free trade agreement came as the region is mired in territorial disputes and unsettled historical legacies.

South Korea and 15 other countries are also set to launch negotiations on a regional free trade pact, which could bring huge economic impact to Asia's fourth-largest economy. The so-called Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) involves the 16 countries -- the 10 ASEAN members plus China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand, and aims to liberalize trade in goods, services and investment in the Asian region. The proposed regional free trade pact is similar to a U.S.-led free trade pact in the Asia-Pacific region. See Trans-Pacific Partnership, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

from, startingDo not use the preposition from to mean a starting point in the future, as the word implies a time or place in the past. The word starting should be used to express a future starting point. The new tax laws will take effect starting in October. However, from may be used if followed by an end point or date, as in “The exhibit will run from April 10 to May 20.”

Wrong: The company said it will implement the price hike from October. (Could mean the price hike appeared last October)
           The government declared five days of mourning from Wednesday. (Could mean the mourning period started last Wednesday)

Right: The company said it will implement the price hike, starting in October.
           The government declared five days of mourning, starting Wednesday.

FTC The Federal Trade Commission, an antitrust watchdog. Abbreviation FTC acceptable on second reference and in headlines.

funeral Funeral service is redundant, as a funeral is a ceremony. Funeral procession is acceptable in describing a solemn parade by which the deceased is made to be respected and remembered.


GCC The six-member Gulf Cooperation Council comprises Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman and Kuwait. Acronym OK on second reference. Use sparingly in headlines.

gender Avoid words that can be used for both men and women, if the sex of an individual can be determined from context of story: Use spokesperson only if the sex of the person involved cannot be determined. Otherwise use spokesman or spokeswoman.

Checklist of terms to use: actor, actress, ambassador (Not ambassadress) anchorman, anchorwoman, anchor, assemblyman, assemblywoman, assembly member, author (Not authoress), aviator (Not aviatrix), barman, barmaid, businessman, businesswoman, businesspeople (Not businessperson), business executives, business leaders, photographer (Not cameraman unless it is a person taking moving pictures), chairman, chairwoman (Not chairperson or chair), comedian (Not comedienne), confidant (Not confidante), congressman, congresswoman, congress member, councillor, council member (Not councilman or councilwoman), countryman, countrywoman, crewman, seaman, crew member, woman crew member, Dietman, Dietwoman, Diet member, divorce (man), divorcee (woman), doyen (Not doyenne), fiance (man), fiancee (woman), firefighter (Not fireman), fisherman, fishing crew, crew member, flight attendant (Not steward or stewardess), foreman, supervisor (Not forewoman, forelady or foreperson), host, hostess, housewife, homemaker, shopper, layman, layperson, laywoman, average person, ordinary person, letter carrier, mail carrier, postal worker, manager (Not manageress) masseur, masseuse, murderer (Not murderess), ombudsman (not omudswoman, although it is listed in some dictionaries), poet (Not poetess), policeman, policewoman, police officer, patrolman, patrolwoman, protege (Not protegee), reporter, writer, editor (Not newsman, newspaperman, woman reporter), salaried worker, office worker (Not office lady, office girl or business girl), salesman, saleswoman, salesclerk (Not salesgirl or salesperson), sculptor (Not sculptress), serviceman, servicewoman, military personnel, spokesman, spokeswoman, official, representative (Not spokesperson), waiter, waitress, weather forecaster (Not weatherman), widow (woman).

geographical names

>Countries: Britain (Not: Great Britain), United States on first reference, with U.S. acceptable on second reference as an adjective. See United Kingdom, United States

>City Names: Do not add “City” after the name, unless the word is an established part of the name as in Rapid City, Salt Lake City. If city names have versions of Italian, French or other languages, follow English versions: Naples (Not: Napoli), Lyons (Not: Lyon)

If making reference to a city and its province, state, or prefecture, put commas both before and after the name of the province, state, prefecture:
Jecheon, North Chungcheong Province;
Overland Park, Kansas;
Beppu, Oita Prefecture

U.S. states: Always spell out state names unless in an address:
The company is located in Culver City, California,
The Lexington, Massachusetts, company;
the U.S. state of New Jersey

Always spell out provinces, states, counties in Canada, China, Britain, etc.: Fujian Province, Guangdong Province.

The following South Korean cities stand alone in the dateline: Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Ulsan, Gwangju, Daejeon See Korean geographical terminology

global positioning system Acronym GPS is acceptable on second reference. GPS is a navigational system involving satellites and computers that determines the location of a receiver on the earth’s surface; South Korea has developed bombs equipped with a global positioning system that are capable of targeting distant enemies day and night.

governmental bodies Capitalize the proper names of specific governmental agencies and departments: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Prime Minister’s Office.

Use lowercase when trimming the name of the office in question: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade becomes the foreign ministry. Further contractions of the name should also be in lowercase: China’s Ministry of Commerce becomes the commerce ministry or the ministry.

Group of Seven The Group of Seven major industrialized countries. Spell out on first reference. G-8 on second reference and in headlines. The seven are Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and United States.

Group ofEight The G-7 plus Russia. Spell out on first reference.

Group of 20 The Group of 20 major economies. Spell out on first reference. G-20 on second reference and in headlines. The Group of 20 major economies, which represent 80 percent of the world’s gross domestic product, was launched in late 2008 to tackle the financial turmoil that was then sweeping the globe. South Korea hosted a G-20 summit in 2010. The 20 are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Britain, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United States and the European Union.

Gyeryongdae South Korea’s main military compound housing Army, Air Force and Navy headquarters, located in the city of Gyeryong near Daejeon, central South Korea.


Hague The Hague. Use uppercase T in both dateline and text unless Hague is used as an adjective: THE HAGUE, Netherlands; a peace conference of major nations at The Hague; the Hague-based court

hallyu The Korean Wave -- the popularity of South Korean pop culture -- in Japan, China and other Asian countries. Put in quotes and explain on first reference.

Hallyuwood Launched by the Gyeonggi provincial government, the Hallyuwood project calls for the construction of a cluster of cultural facilities with a central emphasis on South Korean pop culture. It is a compound word formed from hallyu and Hollywood. Use with quotes and explain. See hallyu

handicapped, disabled Do not use physically challenged as an euphemism for handicapped or disabled. Both terms are frequently used in proper names of organizations, as in the British Columbia-based North Shore Association for the Mentally Handicapped.

>blind, deaf Use visually impaired or hearing impaired only when the subjects retains some capacity for sight or hearing, respectively.

>mute Use as an adjective when describing someone who is incapable of speech. Never use dumb. In legal terminology, the phrase stand mute can be used when the defendant makes no plea.

hanwoo The Korean breed of cattle usually fetches premium prices. Lowercase and use it with quotes: beef from locally raised premium “hanwoo” cattle.

HDTV high-definition television. Spell out on first reference. Abbreviation OK in headlines.

historic, historical Historic means famous or important in the scope of history, while historical means about or based upon events that took place in the past: The 2000 summit between leaders of the two Korea was historic but A historical novel set during the Joseon Dynasty.

Homeplus Not HomePlus or Home Plus

Honam region Generally refers to South Korea’s southwestern region. Consists of North Jeolla and South Jeolla provinces and the Gwangju metropolitan area, and is the main opposition Democratic Party’s traditional stronghold.


IBK The Industrial Bank of Korea. Retain the definite article the and spell out on first reference.

ICT Acronym for information communication technology. Spell out on first reference. ICT, often used as an extended synonym for information technology, refers to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system.

Ieo Islet Lying 4.6 meters below sea level, the reef-islet is located about 149 kilometers southwest of South Korea's southernmost island of Mara and 245 km away from China's Tongdao Island. South Korea set up an ocean research station on the islet in 2003.

illegal immigrant Not illegal migrant or illegal entrant. Do not use stowaway as a synonym when organized smugglers conspire with the crew of a ship to help people in entering a foreign country. Stowaway means someone who hides inside an aircraft or a vessel as a means of obtaining transportation without the knowledge of the crew.

Imjin River Runs across the inter-Korean border, and is known as the Rimjin River in North Korea.

include Indicates that the list contains only some of the parts. If all the parts are listed, use comprising rather than including: three countries comprising South Korea, Japan and China.

> comprise: indicates a list contains all the elements under consideration.

> constitute: to form or make up: The Championship Division constitutes the most competitive division in the annual tournament

Incheon International Airport Incheon airport is acceptable on second reference. Opened in 2001, the country’s main international airport is located in the city of Incheon, about 40 kilometers west of Seoul. See airport

indict Do not give the impression that a person has been judged without a trial. Unless a person is found guilty in a court of law, write indicted on the charge of a murder instead of indicted for killing. See accused, alleged, arrest

individual firearms

pistol: handgun, revolver

sub-machine gun: rapid fire short-range weapons. South Korean soldiers use the K-7 and the German-made MP5 sub-machine gun

assault rifle: Standard weapon used by armed forces. South Korean troops are usually armed with K-2 or M-16 assault rifles, while North Korea uses AK-47s.

rifle: Long-range, single-shot accurate weapons

machine gun: Bipod, tripod mounted weapons designed for sustained fire. South Korea uses K-3, M-60 and K-6 machine guns

Investor-state dispute ISD is acceptable on second reference. Any type of investor-state dispute (ISD) settlement in a trade deal permits companies unhappy with their treatment in another country to seek resolution through arbitration in a third jurisdiction. The Seoul-Washington free trade agreement, which went into office on March 15, 2012, includes a controversial ISD provision which critics claim could undermine South Korea's legal independence and take a toll on South Korea.

Insadong Not Insa-dong. Insadong is one of top tourist destinations in the South Korean capital of Seoul. See Myeongdong.

insam Use insam with quotes to differentiate Korean ginseng from ginseng produced by other Asian countries. Lowercase unless used as part of a proper noun: sales of “insam,” or Korean Ginseng; the Korea Insam brand

Internet Always capitalize

Internet cafe Means a coffee shop where customers can access the Internet. Do not use to refer to message boards hosted by Internet portals; instead use on-line forum. See portal

IT Acronym for information technology. Spell out on first reference.

ITER The International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor. The ITER fusion energy project is aimed at developing fusion energy as a clean and sustainable energy source for the 21st century. South Korea, the United States, Russia, China, Japan, European Union and India agreed in 2006 to build the world’s first thermonuclear reactor in France. Construction of the experimental reactor in Cadarache, southern France, is projected for completion in 2017. See KSTAR.

Ivory Coast Not Cote d’lvoire. Generally use the English spelling in writing names of places. See geographical names


Japan’s pacifist Constitution The Japanese government officially interprets the Constitution, which renounces war and Japan’s right to the use of force to settle international disputes, as prohibiting the country from exercising its right of collective self-defense -- or the use of force to counter an attack on an ally.

Against this backdrop, Tokyo has tried to enact a permanent law authorizing the dispatch of Japanese Self-Defense Forces overseas whenever necessary for international peace cooperation activities. But the question of whether Japan should have a permanent law for the SDF dispatch is a politically sensitive issue, as memories of Japanese wartime aggression are still fresh in other Asian countries, including South Korea and China . See Self-Defense Forces

Japanese names Spelled in Western-style order, i.e., family name after the given name, excepting those predating the Meiji Period, which should be written in the traditional order, family name first: Yasuo Fukuda, Taro Aso, Junichiro Koizumi, Heizo Takenaka, Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) who launched the Tokugawa shougunate government in Edo, now Tokyo, in 1603.

Jeju Island South Korea’s largest island, famous for its resorts. It is not the country’s southernmost island. That title belongs to Mara Island.

Jindotgae alert Not Jindogae. Use with quotes and provide short explanations. The South Korean military issues the three-stage “Jindotgae” alert level for its combat posture against North Korea’s local provocations. "Jindotgae I" alert is the highest level for the military to cope with the possible intrusion of armed guerrillas from the communist North. “Jindotgae” 2 is for less-severe incidents and “Jindotgae 3” is normal.

The “Jindotgae” alert levels are localized. The “Jindotgae 1” alert issued following the North’s 2010 shelling of the border island of Yeonpyeong was limited to areas near the North Korean border. See Defcon, Watchcon

Jogye Order South Korea’s largest Buddhist sect

Joseon Dynasty Not Chosun or Joseon Kingdom. Korea’s last kingdom began in 1392 and ended in 1910 with Japan’s 1910-45 colonization of the Korean Peninsula. The Annals of Joseon Dynasty

JTU Acronym for the Japan Teachers Union, Japan’s largest teachers’ union.

juche idea North Korea’s guiding philosophy is translated roughly as “self-reliance.” Do not capitalize unless part of a proper noun: the Juche Ideal Tower in Pyongyang. Often used as the “juche” self-reliance doctrine of the late Kim Il-sung, the founder of North Korea and father of the North’s current leader, Kim Jong-il. See songun


Kaesong Industrial Complex Do not spell as Gaesong. Located 60 kilometers from Seoul and north of the Demilitarized Zone separating the two Koreas, the inter-Korean industrial complex was a major by-product of the 2000 inter-Korean summit between then South Korean President Kim Dae-jung and North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.

All production at the complex has been halted since early April when Pyongyang pulled out of its workers citing South Korea-U.S. military drills. South Korea evacuated its own workers in early May after North Korea rejected Seoul’s offer to talk.

The complex in the North Korean border city of Kaesong combined South Korea's technology and management expertise with North Korea's cheap labor. A total of 123 South Korean firms operated in the zone, employing 53,000 North Korean workers.

The complex is home to the Inter-Korean Exchange and Cooperation Consultation Office, the first and only joint office, set up in 2005 by the two Koreas to promote inter-Korean trade and investment.

The Kaesong Industrial District Management Committee was South Korea's civilian body in charge of administration and management of the facility. It had offices both in the complex and Seoul.

KATUSA Korean Augmentation Troops to the U.S. Army. OK in headlines and on second references.

karaoke salon Use the Korean word “noraebang” with quotes when referring to a place that rents out rooms hourly that are equipped with sing-along sound systems, usually including a video monitor. The Japanese equivalent karaoke literally means “empty orchestra.” See noraebang

Kathmandu Not Katmandu.

Kbiz Do not use the abbreviation for the Korea Federation of Small and Medium Business. Spell out the full name on first reference.

KCCI The acronym for the Korea Chamber of Commerce & Industry, South Korea's largest private economic organization, may be used in headlines and on second reference.


KCTU The Korean Confederation of Trade Unions, the more militant of South Korea’s two labor umbrella groups with a membership of 670,000.

KEF The Korean Employers Federation, a group of South Korea’s major employers.

KFB The Korea Federation of Banks, a club of commercial banks.

KFTU See Korean Federation of Trade Unions.

Keizai Doyukai Abbreviation for the Japan Association of Corporate Executives, a Japanese business body.

Key Resolve Refers to a joint military drill between South Korea and the United States. The Key Resolve drill aims to test and improve the abilities of the allies to rapidly reinforce frontline troops should North Korea provoke a full-fledged conflict on the Korean Peninsula. The drill is simultaneously held with Foal Eagle, a theater-wide combined field exercise involving massive joint field exercises. The Key Resolve exercise was formally known as RSOI (Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration), which had been launched between 1994 and 2007. The two allies had conducted the similar joint exercise, known as Team Spirit, between 1976 and 1993. See Ulchi-Freedom Guardian

KICOX Korea Industrial Complex Corp., South Korea’s state-run industrial complex operator. Acronym is OK on second reference.

kimchi Do not capitalize. Use without quotes. Explain it if necessary: Served with almost all Korean meals, kimchi is a spicy fermented dish usually made with Chinese cabbage and radishes.

kimchi bonds A dollar-denominated bond floated in South Korea by a non-Korean company. See Arirang bonds, samurai bonds

Kim Jong-il (Feb. 16, 1942-Dec. 17, 2011) The late former North Korean supreme leader who was succeeded by his youngest son Kim Jong-un. Kim came to power after the death of his father and founder of North Korea, Kim Il-sung, in 1994. Kim was the chairman of the National Defense Commission (NDC), the nation’s highest post; the general secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea (WPK); and the supreme commander of the Korean People’s Army (KPA), the fourth-largest standing army in the world.

Kim is most noted for his “songun,” or military-first policy, which prioritizes the army in state of affairs and allocates much of the nation’s resources toward it. Kim was also behind the production of the nation’s first nuclear weapons, defying the 1994 Agreed Framework with the U.S., in which he had pledged to dismantle his nuclear program.

On Dec. 17, 2011, Kim died of a suspected heart attack while traveling on a train to an area outside Pyongyang. Later reports, however, said he had died “in a fit of rage” over construction faults at a power plant in Huichon, Jagang Province. Kim’s body is preserved and displayed in Pyongyang’s Kumsusan Palace of the Sun. He is remembered in the North as the Eternal Leader. See Kumsusan Palace of the Sun.

Kim Jong-un The third and youngest son of former North Korean supreme leader Kim Jong-il, the junior Kim is believed to have been born in January 1983-84, although the exact date of his birth has not been confirmed.

Kim was declared the supreme commander of the Korean People’s Army (KPA) in December 2011. In April 2012, he assumed the newly created post of first secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea (WPK) and the first chairman of the National Defense Commission (NDC). Kim was promoted in July 2012 to “wonsu,” the highest active rank in the military, just days after the removal of Ri Yong-ho, chief of the General Staff under Kim Jong-il.

Kim carried out two long-range rocket launch attempts in April and December 2012, the latter of which successfully put a satellite into orbit, according to experts. He also conducted the nation’s third nuclear test in February 2013, following those in 2006 and 2009. Kim is believed to have been married to Ri Sol-ju since 2009 and have two children. See NDC.

KINTEX Korea International Exhibition Center, a major convention center in the city of Goyang, west of Seoul. Abbreviation is OK for use on second reference. See BEXCO, COEX.

KITA Te Korea International Trade Association, a trade promotion agency. Acceptable in headlines and on second reference.

KMA The Korea Meteorological Administration. Acronym is OK on second reference.

KNCC The National Council of Churches in Korea, a group of progressive churches in South Korea

Koguryo The name of the ancient Korean kingdom (37 B.C.-A.D. 668), which controlled the Korean Peninsula northeastern China for more than 700 years, is spelled Koguryo not Goguryeo as it is better known internationally. China officially used the Koguryo name in 2004 when Koguryo tombs and murals in the city of Jian, China’s Jilin Province, were added to a World Heritage list by the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), a move believed to be Chin’s campaign to claim its historical sovereignty over the ancient kingdom. See Northeast Asia Project.

KORAIL The state-run Korea Railroad Corp.

Korean age When writing the age of a Korean person, subtract one from the age listed in Korean sources, as Koreans count a newly born infant as one year old.

Korean Confederation of Trade Unions The more militant of South Korea’s two umbrella labor groups, with a membership of 670,000. KCTU is OK on second reference.

Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan Also known as “Jeongdaehyeop,” the Seoul-based council was established in 1990 and leads a weekly rally in front of the Japanese Embassy in Seoul calling on the Japanese government to apologize to comfort women and provide compensation. It also carries out other activities to support women who were forced into sexual slavery. See comfort women.

Korea Exchange South Korea’s bourse operator and the main stock market. See KOSCOM

Korean food Use with quotes and provide short and crisp explanations. Following is a list of popular Korean foods:
bibimbap vegetables and meat mixed with steamed rice and hot pepper paste
bulgogi sliced prime beef marinated with sweet soy sauce
doenjangjjigae thick soup made from fermented bean paste and vegetables
galbi beef or pork marinated with sweet soy sauce
kalguksu hand-rolled noodles in beef or chicken broth
naengmyeon chewy noodles in a cold broth
samgyeopsal barbecued fatback pork, eaten wrapped in lettuce
samgyetang stewed whole chicken stuffed with rice and ginseng
seolleongtang soup made by boiling down beef bone and meat.
sikhye sweet after dinner drink made with rice malt
sujeonggwa cinnamon-flavored punch
See also kimchi

Korean geographical terminology

>City, town, villag: South Korean municipalities are known as shi, gun, eup or myeon which translate to city, county, town and village. Do not add the translated words to Korean geographical names. Instead, use natural English phrasing where appropriate: the city of Seongnam, not Seongnam City, the South Korean border town of Munsan, Yeongdeok, a seaside town in South Gyeongsang Province.

>Ward: Below the municipal government is the gu or ward administrative level. Capitalize when part of a proper noun: Jongno Ward in Seoul, Daegu’s Suseong Ward. A gucheong is ward office.

> Island names: Do not retain the appendages do, seom. Uppercase island: Yeongjong Island (Not: Yeongjongdo island), Jin Island, Heuksan Island, Sorok Island. Notable exception is Dokdo. Also see Dokdo

Do not retain the suffix gundo, yeoldo or jedo when referring to a chain of islands separated from each other by narrow bodies of water: the Gogunsan Islands , off the coast of Gunsan on South Korea’s western seaboard

>Mount, River, Lake, Island, Bridge, etc: Generally suffixes like san, gang, ho, do (seom), gyo (dari) should be replaced with their English equivalents, capitalized and used as separate words: Mount Halla, Han River, Soyang Lake, Daecheong Island, Seongsu Grand Bridge.

>Province: Province is expressed as “do” in Korean. Change this word to province. Capitalize when part of a proper name: Gyeonggi-do becomes Gyeonggi Province. In South Korea, the 17 regional administrative districts comprise Seoul, six metropolitan cities, eight provinces, the autonomous Jeju Province and the special autonomous city of Sejong. See Sejong.

The six metropolitan cities are:
Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Ulsan, Gwangju and Daejeon
The eight provinces are:
Geyonggi, Gangwon, North Chungcheong, South Chungcheong, North Jeolla, South Jeolla, North Gyeongsang, South Gyeongsang. Do not add City to Seoul and the six metropolitan cities. But add Province to the nine provinces including Jeju.

If the names of the major cities or provinces represent a local government, use the metropolitan government for Seoul and metropolitan cities and the provincial government for provinces:
the Seoul metropolitan government
the North Chungcheong provincial government.

Administrative areas below the metropolitan and provincial governments are known as si, gun, gu, eup, myeon, dong and ri, translated as city, county, district, town, township, neighborhood and village, respectively.

Korean names Family name comes first. Given name is hyphenated, with second part of given name in lower case: Lee Myung-bak, Kim Dae-jung, Lee So-youn.

The given name of a Korean name usually has two words. But if it consists of three words or more, the given name gets no hyphen: South Korean footballer Yoon Bitgaram. The family name is never hyphenated: former Financial Minister Sakong Il.

The basic rule is to spell Korean names the way they are used by the individual, whenever they can be readily verified. Consult ''Who’s Who in Korea'' by Yonhap News Agency (South Koreans) or ''North Korea Directory'' (North Koreans) by Radiopress to verify names of public figures.

>Spelling for Korean names, words: In 2002, Yonhap adopted a new Romanization system intended to more closely reflect the phonetic characteristics of the Korean language, departing from McCune-Reischauer. The system announced by the South Korean government in 2000 is known as the New Hangeul Romanization System. Refer to APPENDIX: New Hangeul Romanization System

Exceptions to this rule are allowed for people’s names, North Korean names and places. Yonhap still uses the Reischauer spelling formula for North Koreans and North Korean places: Mount Kumgang (Not Geumgang), Kaesong (Not Gaeseong). See Mount Kumgang

>Corporate names: Use the proper names as decided by the companies concerned. For the names of companies, products, brand names, the final authority for spelling their names rests with those organizations or distributors of such products: Hyundai, Samsung, SK hynix, etc. See corporate names

>Geographical names: Follow the new Romanization system for Korean place names, reflecting the current general usage in South Korea by the government and most local newspapers.

Names of South Korean provinces and major cities: The English names of South Korean provinces and major cities under new Romanization system (old Romanization in parentheses) are as follows:

Gyeonggi Province (Kyonggi)
Gangwon Province (Kangwon)
North Chungcheong Province (Chungchong)
South Chungcheong Province (Chungchong)
North Jeolla Prvovince (Cholla)
South Jeolla Province (Cholla)
North Gyeongsang Province (Kyongsang)
South Gyeongsang Province (Kyongsang)
Jeju Province (Cheju)
Busan (Pusan)
Daegu (Taegu)
Gwangju (Kwangju)
Daejeon (Taejon)
Incheon (Inchon)
Jeonju (Chonju)
Jeju (Cheju)
Cheongju (Chongju)
Gyeongju (Kyongju)
Gimpo (Kimpo)
Gimhae (Kimhae)
Ulsan (Ulsan)
Gangneung (Kangnung)
Dokdo (Tokto)

>Names of people: Use the New Hangeul Romanization system to spell the names of non-public figures as well as public officials whose names cannot be readily verified through reference materials.

The final authority is the spelling adopted by the individual: Chyung Dai-chul, a senior official of the main opposition Democratic Party; former Unification Minister Jeong Se-hyun; Hyundai Motor Chairman Chung Mong-koo. When that person cannot be reached for verification, follow the new system.

Korean Teachers and Educational Workers Union A progressive umbrella union of teachers in South Korea, known as “Jeongyojo.” The abbreviation KTU is OK for use on second reference.

Korean palaces The gung suffix is omitted. Always give the English word, with the name: Deoksu Palace (Not Deoksugung Palace), Gyeongbok Palace (Not Gyeongbokgung Palace).

Korean temples The sa suffix is omitted. Always give the English word, with the name: Jogye Temple (Not Jogyesa Temple), Jikji Temple (Not: Jikjisa Temple), Tongdo Temple, Daedun Temple.

Korean words Follow the guidelines below on the use of Korean words.

>Anglicized Korean words: Use those by Webster’s or considered understandable to most non-Korean readers without quotes. Otherwise, place in quotes and give a short explanation:

South Korea’s exports of kimchi surged this year as the traditional pickle was believed to be effective in preventing SARS. Webster’s has an entry of kimchi.

The Korean dish “dolsotbibimbap,” -- rice, cooked vegetables, meat, fried egg and red pepper paste in a hot stone pot – is popular among tourists.

>Plural words: Korean words do not take on s when used in the plural: family-run industrial groups called “chabol,” female artists and courtesans, called “gisaeng.”

>Acronyms: Shortened names of Korean organizations may be used once their English translations have been given in full. Limit such use to popular groups:

the Federation of Korean University Student Council (Hanchongryon),
Lawyers for a Democratic Society (Minbyun)
the Pro-Seoul Korean Residents Union in Japan (Mindan)
the pro-Pyongyang General Association of Korean Residents in Japan (Chongryon).

Korean Peninsula Always uppercase peninsula.

KOSCOM Formerly known as Korea Securities Computer Corp., the company is a stock information provider affiliated with the Korea Exchange, South Korea’s main bourse and its main stock exchange.

KOSDAQ market South Korea’s junior and technology-laced stock market. The market’s index is the KOSDAQ index. Not Kosdaq.

KOSPI The Korea Composite Stock Price Index. Not Kospi

KOTRA The state-run Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency (Not Korea Trade and Investment Promotion Agency)

KSTAR The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research is South Korea’s main research facility for the development of nuclear fusion energy. The KSTAR reactor is a pilot device for the planned International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITER). See ITER

KT Do not spell out KT Corp., South Korea’s largest telecom company. The company’s subsidiaries include:
KTF Co., South Korea’s second-largest mobile phone operator
KT Powertel Co., a radio communications service unit of KT Corp.

KT & G KT & G Corp., South Korea’s biggest tobacco firm, based in Daejeon. Do not spell out.

KTX OK on first reference. Commercially launched in April 1, 2004, the South Korean high-speed train service cuts the travel time from Seoul to Busan to 2 hours and 40 minutes. South Korea’s bullet train service, the KTX.

Kumsusan Palace of the Sun The embalmed bodies of North Korea’s late founder ,Kim Il-sung, and his son Kim Jong-il are kept at the memorial in Pyongyang. Formerly the Kumsusan Memorial Palace.

Kuomintang The Chinese Nationalist Party. Do not follow with the word party. Tang means party.

Korean Olympic Committee KOC is acceptable on second reference. The governing body of all sports in South Korea, founded in 1947, has 58 affiliated sports organizations, 16 domestic sports bodies and 17 overseas branches. Delegates from the affiliated bodies and South Korean members of the International Olympic Committee elect the KOC’s top post, which is currently held by Kim Jung-haeng. See the names of the affiliated sports organizations affiliated in the Korean Olympic Committee, listed in Sports Guidelines.


Labour Party Use Labour, not Labor, when referring to the British Labour Party or other political parties which retain the British spelling Labour in their official name.

lady, gentleman Do not use lady as a synonym for woman or gentleman for man. See first lady

Latin expressions Do not hyphenate Latin expressions, even when they are used as adjective phrases preceding a noun: per capita income, not per-capita income.

Among the most commonly used Latin phrases are: ad hoc, in vitro, ad valorem, status quo, per capita, per annum and vice versa.

Liberal Forward Party A now-defunct right-leaning minor party founded and led by Lee Hoi-chang, an influential conservative icon in South Korea who ran for the presidency three times -- in 1997, 2002 and 2007. The party was renamed as the Advancement and Unification Party in 2012 before being merged into the ruling Sanuri Party the same year. Abbreviation LFP is on second reference.

liquid natural gas LNG is acceptable on second reference

liquid petroleum gas LPG is acceptable on second reference

like, such as Like indicates resemblance and such as introduce examples: Osama bin Laden and people like him, retailers such as E-Mart and Homeplus.


Macao Not Macau. The former Portuguese colony was handed over to China in December 1999.

mad cow disease Scientific name is bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The brain-wasting disease eats away at the brain matter of cows. Humans can be infected through consumption of contaminated meat.

South Korea signed a deal with the United States in April 2008 to import most cuts of beef, ending an ban that was first imposed in 2003. Additional agreements were tacked onto the April deal two month later amid massive street protests, in an effort to alleviate public heath concerns over the meat. Under those agreements, U.S. beef exporters must voluntarily refrain from sending meat from cattle older than 30 months, which are considered to be at a higher risk of contracting mad cow disease.

South Korea was the third-largest importer of U.S. beef prior to the 2003 ban, which was imposed following the discovery of a case of mad cow in the U.S. state of Washington.

The disease was first diagnosed in Britain in 1986, and has since been detected in Europe, Asia and North America. See bovine spongiform encephalopathy, CJD, prion

major economic organizations The following are South Korea’s five main economic groups: the Korea Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KCCI), the Federation of Korean Industries (FKI), the Korea Federation of Small and Medium Business (Kbiz), the Korea Employers Federation (KEF) and the Korea International Trade Association (KITA).

maglev Write out magnetic-levitation train on first reference. Abbreviation is OK in headlines.

maker, makers Do not use as stand-alone synonym for manufacturers. Acceptable terms: automaker, carmaker, steelmaker, drugmaker, chipmaker, mapmaker, personal computer maker, toymaker. Synonym for manufacturer is producer. Do not use manufacturer for chemicals, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, etc, as it implies assembly.

Mangyongbong The North Korean passenger ship shuttles between the Japanese port of Niigata and Wonsan in eastern North Korea and is mostly used by North Korean residents in Japan.

medical Avoid using technical medical terms for diseases, injuries or other ailments. Instead, use readily understood phrases. If a technical term appears in a quote, as from a doctor or medical institute, explain the meaning of the term: “The patient,” said the doctor, “died of a massive myocardial infarction,” or heart attack.

In cases of accidents, vehicular or otherwise, give figures for those killed, missing and injured separately. For incidents involving hospital stays, try to report the length of stay expected.

Conditions of hospital patients can be given as fair, stable, serious, grave or critical (in order of seriousness). For diseases, capitalize only for proper names: Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, Parkinson’s disease.

megaherz Abbreviate as MHz when accompanied by a number: 200 MHz

megawatt 1 million watts. Spell out on all references: a 5-megawatt reactor.

MEM Initiated by the United States in 2007, the Major Economies Meeting on Energy Security and Climate Change involves the Group of Eight major countries and eight other major greenhouse gas emitters. The G-8 are Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and the U.S., while the other eight are the Group of Five countries – Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa – and Australia, Indonesia and South Korea. The 16 countries together are known to account for about 80 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emission.

memorandum of understanding Use acronym MOU on second reference only. Spell out on first reference. An MOU is a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties that expresses a convergence of will between the signatories. It is a formal agreement that is not legally binding.

Mercosur Not MERCOSUR. The South American trade bloc Mercosur encompasses Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay with Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela as associated members.

metric Yonhap use the metric system. See Metric Conversion Chart

Middle East Mideast OK in headlines.

midsize Not midsized or mid-sized. But small- and mid-sized firms.

miles Convert to kilometers. One mile is equal to 1.6 kilometers

million, billion, trillion Contractions for the three words are mln, bln, tln, respectively.

Mindan The Korean acronym refers to the pro-Seoul Korean Residents Union in Japan and may be used on second reference.

missiles The following list is for informational purposes.

- surface-to-air missiles (SAMs): These missiles are designed to shoot down aircraft. These weapons systems can be towed or be self-propelled. Patriot missile used by the U.S. are latest generation of SAMs.

- surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) or anti-ship missiles: These missiles are designed to attack enemy ships or provide coastal defense. Many modern-day anti-ship missiles are "sea-skimmers" that fly just meters from the surface of the water to avoid detection from enemy radar. Harpoon missiles used by many countries around the world are all-weather anti-ship missiles.

- other missiles: There are also various anti-tank, air-to-surface (ground attack) and air-to-air missiles.

missile names Use Arabic figures and capitalize the proper name but not the word missile. Do not put a hyphen between the figure and the proper name. If the name of a missile has an alphabetic categorization, use a hyphen: North Korea’s Taepodong 2 missile, Iran’s Agni 2 missile. The same rule applies to rocket names. See satellite names.

Mount Kumgang NotMount Geumgang. The scenic mountain on North Korea’s eastern coast is the site of a South Korean-run resort visited by South Korean tourists via an overland route across the DMZ.

Tours of the mountain resort, operated by South Korea's Hyundai Asan, are a major by-product of the 2000 inter-Korean summit between then South Korean President Kim Dae-jung and then North Korean leader Kim Jong-il. The summit resulted in a string of projects aimed at national reconciliation and economic cooperation, including the Mt. Kumgang resort, the reconnection of inter-Korean railways and their adjacent roads, and the reunions of family members separated before and during the 1950-53 Korean War.

The resort is also a source of hard currency for the cash-strapped North. As of 2008, about 1.9 million visitors, mostly South Koreans, have visited the resort since it opened in 1998. Tourism was abruptly halted in July 2008 after a female South Korean tourist was shot to death by a North Korean soldier.

South Korean buildings inside the mountain resort include Onjonggak Rest House, which is often used as a venue for the family reunions, and the two hotels -- Haegeumgang Hotel and Kumgang Family Beach Hotel. The North Korean office overseeing the mountain's tourism zone is the Guidance Bureau for Comprehensive Development of Scenic Spots. South Korea built a family reunion center on a site near the entrance of the resort to hold temporary reunions of separated families on a regular basis.

Mount Paekdu The highest mountain on the Korean Peninsula, situated on North Korea’s border with China. Not Baekdu.

Mr., Mrs., Ms. Do not use courtesy titles such as Mr., Mrs., or Ms. unless necessary to avoid confusion in stories: Laura Bush, wife of U.S. President George W. Bush, toured the National Folk Museum of Korea in Seoul. Mrs. Bush expressed keen interest in Korea's traditional floor heating system, called "ondol."
The term Mrs. refers to married women, while Ms. refers to unmarried women.

mujahideen Lowercase when referring to the Arabic word for holy warriors. Capitalize if part of the name of a group: Taliban Mujahideen, Afghanistan 's mujahideen fighters.

mute See handicapped

Myeongdong Not Myeong-dong. Myeongdong is one of top tourist destinations in the South Korean capital. Myeongdong Cathedral. See Insadong.


NAFTA Acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement, a trade pact among Canada, Mexico and the United States that took effect on Jan. 1, 1994. Spell out on first reference.

NAM Founded in the 1950s, the Non-Aligned Movement is a grouping of over 100 developing countries that have vowed to not formally align themselves with any major power blocs. Spell out on first reference, except in headlines.

names of persons Names should be rendered in accordance with the person’s preference. See also Chinese names, Japanese names, Korean names, Vietnamese names

Nampho A North Korean port city. Not Nampo

Naro Refers to South Korea’s first-ever space rocket, known as the Korea Space Launch Vehicle-1. The rocket, which carried a science satellite, was successfully launched from the Naro Space Center in Goheung on South Korea’s south coast on Jan. 30, 2013. The lower or first-stage of the Naro was built by Russia's Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center under a 2004 pact signed with Russia. Seoul, however, is seeking to develop its own space launch vehicles with plans to develop an indigenous 10-ton thrust engine by 2016 already under way. The country earlier had plans to launch an indigenous 300-ton thrust space rocket carrying a 1.5-ton satellite in 2021, but the development may now be completed sooner for a launch in 2018 or 2019, according to the science ministry. See Naro Space Center

Naro Space Center Refers to South Korea’s first rocket-launching facility, located on 4.95 million square meters of land on Oenaro Island in Goehung, off the country’s southwestern coast. The project cost 300 billion won.

National AssemblyThe parliament or the National Assembly may be used on first reference. The unicameral parliament’s top position is National Assembly Speaker.

As of May 2013, the number of seats held by political groups in the National Assembly is as follows.

Saenuri 153
DP 127
Independents 8
Total 300

(Saenuri=Sanuri Party, DP=Democratic Party; UPP=Unified Progressive Party;PJP=Progressive Justice Party)

national cemeteries See National Cemetery, National Cemetery for the May 18th Democratic Uprising, Revolutionary Martyr’s Cemetery

National Cemetery The South Korean state-run cemetery located in southern Seoul.

National Cemetery for the May 18th Democratic Uprising Established in 1997, the national cemetery honors the hundreds of citizens killed in the city of Gwangju, located in the country’s southwest, during protests against the military junta of Gen. Chun Doo-hwan in May 1980.

National Football Center Established in 2001, the National Football Center in the city of Paju, Gyeonggi Province, is South Korea’s first football training facility with one artificial and six natural grass pitches.

National People’s Congress China’s parliament

National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service South Korea’s state-run quarantine service. Do not use acronym NVRQS.

navy Use lower case as generic term unless part of a proper noun: the South Korean Navy, the U.S. Navy, but the British navy, which is officially known as the Royal Navy.

NDC Use acronym for North Korea’s National Defense Commission on second reference only. The NDC is defined by the country’s 1998 Constitution as the highest guiding organ of the country. See Kim Jong-il.

netizen A South Korea-originated word used to describe someone who participates in on-line dialogue, such as posting messages on on-line forums or blogs. May or may not be a blogger, though most South Korean bloggers would be considered netizens. Do not apply the term to those outside of South Korea; instead simply write Internet user. See blog

Nippon Keidanren The abbreviation for the Japan Business Federation, Japan’s most powerful business lobby, is acceptable on second reference. Nippon Keidanren was launched in May 2002 with the merger of the Federation of Economic Organizations (Keidanren) and the Japan Federation of Employers Association (Nikkeiren)

NIS Acronym for the National Intelligence Service, South Korea’s spy organ.

Spell out on first reference.

NLL Acronym for the Northern Limit Line in the Yellow Sea, a de facto sea border between the two Koreas. North Korea, however, refuses the NLL, drawn by United Nations forces at the end of the 1950-53 Korean War. Spell out on first reference.

noraebang See

karaoke salon

Northeast Asia Project China’s state-backed project to claim historical sovereignty over the ancient Korean kingdom of Koguryo, the largest of Korea’s Three Kingdoms (57 B,C.-A.D. 668) period, located around the North Korea and Manchuria border. As part of the project, Chinese scholars published academic papers describing the kingdom of hunting tribes as a vassal state of China. See Koguryo

North Korean dispatches Quotes issued by North Korean sources such as the Korean Central News Agency in English often contain numerous grammatical mistakes, syntax errors and unusual style choices. Despite this, they should remain verbatim in their entirety without any changes to syntax.

North Korean provinces The English names of North Korean provinces and major cities are:

North Hamgyong (Not Hamkyong)
South Hamgyong
North Pyongan (Not Phyongan)
South Pyongan (Not Phyongan)
North Hwanghae
South Hwanghae
major cities
Chongjin, Heoryong, Kimchaek, Rason
Hamhung, Sinpo, Tanchon, Hungnam
Kanggye, Huichon, Manpho
Sinuiju, Kusong, Jongju
Pyongsong, Sunchon, Anju, Kaechon,
Wonsan, Munchon

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Not Nonproliferation or Non-proliferation. Spell out on first reference. Acronym NPT is OK on second reference and in headlines.

numerals Always spell out a numeral appearing at the beginning of a sentence: Twelve houses were destroyed and 86 others flooded. Three hundred workers took part in the rally.

Spell out whole numerals below 10, and use figures for 10 and above in within the text:
Only three of the 22 runners finished the race.
Foreign workers from 12 nations held a rally in Changwon.
He was accompanied by 12 ministers and five journalists.

The same rule applies to adjective forms. five-day week, 12-member delegation.

Numbers should be spelled out when used in casual expressions.
She is one hundred percent wrong.
They plan to rally a million workers. eleventh-hour, fifty-fifty chance.

Plurals of figures are usually made by adding "s" without an apostrophe.
The custom dates back to the 1850s. The airline bought seven Boeing 747s.

Million, billion (1,000 million) and trillion (1,000 billion) may be used, with decimalization carried to two places (round to three decimal places): $7.52 million, 2.53 billion people. See million, billion, trillion.

When a series of relevant figures appear in a sentence or a story, be sure to distinguish clearly between them:
South Korea's trade deficit grew to US$375 million in February, compared with $102 million in the previous month.
The budget increased almost threefold to US$2.3 billion from the previous year's $800 million.

Decimalization, however, should be avoided whenever possible, as when approximate figures are necessary.
Production grew to 36 million tons in 1997 from 15 million (not 15.31 million) tons in 1996.

Roman numerals are used for both World Wars, royal members, as part of personal names, yachts, etc. World War II, King George V, Douglas MacArthur III, Mermaid IV

The following are the exceptions to the spelling-out-below-10 rule.

Numerals describing dimension, measurement, distance, weight, capacity, speed and proportion are not spelled out.
The machine is 3 meters tall, weighing 9 tons.
The paper plane measures 12 by 24 centimeters.
a 4-to-3 ratio, at a speed of 2 kilometers per minute, a 4-megabit chip

Do not spell out numerals when describing ages of a person and animal.
a 5-year-old girl, Kim Jin-hee, 35, a contest for 6-year-olds

Sums of money are always presented in numerals.
100 won, $9, 7,520 yen, $150,000, 4,500 marks, 650 pounds, 300 pesos, 680 francs, 1 million won

Percent and percentage point are given in numerals, except when they appear at the beginning of a sentence, in which case they are to be spelled out. .
1 percent, 3.5 percent, 80 percent. 0.25 percentage point, 6 percentage points Four percent of those polled replied in the negative.

Times of day and days of month are shown in numerals. Use colon between hour and minute figures. The rocket was launched at 3:15 p.m., April 10.

Use numerals to describe temperatures and other meteorological indicators.
The temperature was 35.4 C at noon, almost 5 C above normal.
South Korea detects a 3.7 magnitude tremor in Hamgyong Province.

Use numerals for point score and performance times. Spell out numerals describing time intervals.
South Korea beat Italy 2-1 in a soccer friendly.
Hong Myung-bo scored four goals to lead South Korea to a 4-2 victory over the United States.
Lee Bong-joo secured second place with a time of 2 hours, 9 minutes, 4 seconds (or 2:09:04). But: He beat his rival by two minutes. (interval)

Always use numerals for longitude and latitude: 5 degrees 13 minutes north latitude

Use numerals to describe voting results.
The committee voted 8-2 in favor of the resolution.

Use numerals for sections of books, documents, plays and TV channels. page 7, Article 4 of the Constitution, Article 250 of the Criminal Law, Channel 6, Act 3 (But: the third act)

Use numerals for calendar year at the beginning of a sentence:
2007 was a very good year.


ODA official development assistance

OECD The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Spell out on first reference. Abbreviation OK in headlines.

OEM Original equipment manufacturing, as in “Daewoo Electronics will produce the refrigerators for the German firm on an original equipment manufacturing basis.” The acronym OEM is acceptable on second reference and in headlines.

OIE The Paris-based World Organization for Animal Health is known by its French acronym OIE. Do not use the organization’s French name, Office International des Epizooties.

OK Do not spell out okay.

on-line Not online.

OPCON See wartime operational control.

OPEC The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Its acronym is OK on first reference if the full name interferes with the flow of the lead sentence. It is also acceptable in headlines.

open source Use the term when referring to software or software development projects that allow users to access the source code. Open source software is often free and falls under a different license than proprietary software.

oral, verbal While both oral and verbal can refer to spoken communications, verbal is more specially tied to the spoken word, whereas oral refers to anything relating to the mouth.

over-the-counter The abbreviation OTC can be used on second reference and in headlines


Panmunjom The truce village located in the middle of the Demilitarized Zone, straddling the border between the two Koreas. Do not spell as Panmunjeom. In Panmunjom-originated stories, use the dateline PANMUNJOM, Korea, not PANMUNJOM, South Korea.

On the southern side of the village are the South Korean buildings Freedom House and the House of Peace. On its northern side are the North Korean buildings Tongilgak and Panmungak. The two Koreas often use either the House of Peace or Tongilgak as venues for inter-Korean talks. See also Demilitarized Zone.

pansori A traditional Korean form of storytelling performed by one vocalist and one percussionist. Do not capitalize.

People’s Liberation Army The official name of the Chinese armed forces. Do not use the abbreviation PLA except in quotes.

peer-to-peer network Do not use P2P as an abbreviation except in headlines. A decentralized network that uses the cumulative bandwidth of the network’s users, often used to share and download illegally copied media such as mp3s or movies.

percent, percentage point Spell percent out as one word, not per cent or %. Pct is acceptable in headlines. Car ownership rose to 70 percent from 50 percent during the decade. In this case, the rate of increase is 40 percent, or an increase of 20 percentage points. See also numerals

When referring to a decimal value less than 1, use point instead of points: 2.2 points, 0.5 point, The defense budget takes up 15.5 percent of total government spending for fiscal 2009, up 0.3 percentage point from this year.

Do not hyphenate when used as a compound modifier: a 23 percent increase, a 0.3 percentage point gain, an increase of 0.3 percentage point.

Write between 10 percent and 30 percent of the population, not between 10 to 30 percent or 10 and 30 percent.

plurals The following is a list of words, most of them with a Latin ending and two different plurals.

agendum (rare)
datum (rare)
data (not datums)
forums (not fora)
indexes (not indices)
media (not mediums)
memorandums (not memoranda)
phenomena (not phenomenons)
stadiums (not stadia)

Korean words do not take plural forms: chaebol, not chaebols. See also Korean words.

PM2.5 A toxic air pollutant that measures some 2.5 thousands of a millimeter or smaller in diameter and could lead to health problems.

PKO Do not use the acronym for U.N. peacekeeping operations as it was coined by the Japanese media as space saver.

police The word police is generally treated as a plural. Omit the on first reference: Police arrested a man on suspicion of murdering a female civil servant. On second reference, identify the police force that carried out the arrest: Gyeonggi provincial police said the suspect stabbed the 37-year-old civil servant. Use the police on following references.

portal Not portal site

POSCO The world’s fourth-largest steelmaker. Do not spell out the company’s full name. Other POSCO group companies include:
POSCO Steel Service and Sales Co.
POSCO Engineering and Construction Co.

ppm parts per million. Spell out on first reference. Use abbreviation on second reference if accompanied by a figure: permissible level of 0.9 ppm.

prefixes Generally, do not hyphenate when using a prefix with words starting with a consonant. There are three basic rules, although there are some exceptions to first listed spellings in Webster's New World.

Except for cooperate and coordinate, use a hyphen if the prefix ends in a vowel and the word that follows begins with the same vowel: co-owner. Use a hyphen if the word that follows is capitalized: pro-French

No hyphen for the prefix after when used to form a noun: aftereffect, afterthought. Use a hyphen for compound modifiers: after-dinner drink, after-theater snack

Use a hyphen with the prefix all, as in: all-around, all-out, all-clear (as adj.), all-star (adj. & n.) all-right (not alright).. Hyphenate only if used colloquially as a compound modifier: He is an all-right guy. An all-time high. Do not hyphenate for greatest runner of all time.

Always capitalize Anglo. No hyphen when the word that follows is in lowercase: Anglomania, Anglophobe, Anglophile. Use a hyphen when the word that follows is capitalized: Anglo-American, Anglo-Indian, Anglo-Catholic

Never use Anglo standing alone as a synonym for people who are of English descent or whose primary language is English. Use instead Anglo-Saxon.

The standard rules applies to the prefix ante, but no hyphen for antebellum, antedate

Hyphenate all words with the prefix anti, except the following words, which have specific meanings of their own: antibiotic, antibody, anticlimax, antidote, antifreeze, antigen, antihistamine, antiknock, antimatter, antimony, antipasto, antiperspirant, antiphon, antiphony, antiseptic, antiserum, antitheses, antitoxin.

Hyphenated words, many of them exceptions to Webster's New World, include: anti-aircraft, anti-bias, anti-inflation, anti-intellectual, anti-labor, anti-imperialist, anti-social, anti-American, anti-monopoly, anti-dumping, anti-imperialist, anti-war.

Never use anti-drug law, anti-riot squad or anti-cancer drug. Instead, use drug law, riot squad and cancer drug.

No hyphen after the prefix arch unless it precedes a capitalized word: archbishop, archenemy, archrival, arch-Republican

Hyphenate words with the prefix bi except for bifocal, bilateral, bilingual, bimonthly, bipartisan, biweekly.

Hyphenate words with the prefix by except for byline, bypass, byproduct, bystreet; by-election is an exception

Use a hyphen with the prefix co when forming nouns, adjectives and verbs that indicate occupation or status (several examples are exceptions to Webster's New World in the interests of consistency): co-author, co-chairman, co-defendant, co-host, co-owner, co-partner, co-pilot, co-respondent (in divorce case), co-signer, co-star, co-worker, co-sponsor.

No hyphen is needed with other combinations: coed, coeducation, coequal, cooperate, cooperative (but co-op), coordinate, coexist, coexistence, coordination.

See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix cyber. Keep in mind that cyberspace and cybercrirne are not hyphenated.

dis –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix dis, except for dismember, disservice, dissemble, dissuade.

down –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix down, except for downgrade and downtown.

ex –
Do not hyphenate words beginning with the prefix ex when used to connote separation, as in excommunicate or expropriate. Hyphenate when used to describe former status, as in ex-convict or ex-president. Do not capitalize ex when attached to a formal title before a name, as in ex-President Nixon. The prefix ex modifies the entire term, as in ex-New York Gov. Nelson Rockefeller, not New York ex-Gov. Rockefeller. In cases like this former is preferable.

extra –
Do not use a hyphen after the prefix extra to describe outside, as in extralegal, extraterrestrial, extramarital, extramural, extraterritorial, extracurricular. Hyphenate if the prefix is followed by a word beginning with a or is a capitalized word, as in extra-alimentary. Use a hyphen when extra is part of a compound modifier describing a condition beyond the usual size, extent or degree, as in extra-base hit, extra-large book, extra-dry martini, extra-mild taste.

fore –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix fore, but do not hyphenate the following words: forebrain, foregoing, foregather, foretooth. There are three nautical exceptions, based on long-standing practice: fore-topgallant, fore-topsail, fore-topmast.

half –
Follow Webster’s New World for words with the prefix half. Use a hyphen if the word is not listed there. Some frequently used words without a hyphen are halfback, halfhearted, halftone, halftrack, halftime. Frequently used two-word combinations that are not hyphenated are half brother, half dollar, half note, half size, half tide. Frequently used two-word combinations that include a hyphen are half-baked, half-life, half-blood, half-cocked, half-hour, half-moon, half-truth, half-mast, half-staff.

hydro –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix hydro. Do not hyphenate the words hydroelectric or hydrophobia.

hyper –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix hyper. Do not hyphenate the words hyperactive or hypercritical.

in –
Do not hyphenate the prefix in when used to connote the negative, as in inaccurate or insufferable. Also, do not hyphenate inbound, indoor, infield, infighting, inpatient (n./adj.). The following words are hyphenated: in-depth, in-group, in-house, in-law. Follow Webster's New World when in doubt.

Indo –
Generally hyphenated and capitalized, as in Indo-Aryan, Indo-German, Indo-Hittite, Indo-Iranian. Note that Indochina is not hyphenated.

infra –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix infra, but in general do not hyphenate for infrared or infrastructure.

inter –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix inter, but in general, no hyphen: interracial interstate inter-American

like –
Follow with a hyphen when used as a prefix to mean similar to, as in like-minded. Do not hyphenate words such as likelihood, likeness or likewise, which have meanings of their own.

mid –
Do not hyphenate unless followed by a capital letter, as in mid-America or mid-Atlantic. Words such as midsemester, midterm and midtier are not hyphenated. Use a hyphen when the prefix mid precedes a figure, as in mid-30s.

multi –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix multi, but do not hyphenate the following words: multicolored, multilateral, multimillion, multimillionaire.

non –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix non, but in general do not hyphenate when forming a compound that does not have special meaning or can be understood if without the hyphen. Use a hyphen, however, before proper nouns or in awkward combinations, such as non-nuclear. Follow Webster's New World.

odd –
Follow with a hyphen when used in compounds such as odd-looking or odd-numbered.

off –
Follow Webster's New World, but hyphenate if not listed there. Some commonly used hyphenated combinations are off-color, off-peak, off-season and off-white. Some combinations without a hyphen are offhand, offset, offshore, offside and offstage.

over –
Follow Webster's New World. Otherwise a hyphen is seldom used for the prefix over: overbuy, overexert, overrate, override, overstaffed, overestimate, oversimplify, overrule.

pan –
No hyphen when combined with a common noun, as in pantheism. Most combinations with the prefix pan are proper nouns, however, and both pan and the proper name it is combined with are capitalized, as in Pan-African, Pan-American, or Pan-Asiatic.

post –
Follow Webster's New World. Hyphenate if not listed there. Some words with the prefix post without a hyphen are postdate, postdoctoral, postelection, postgraduate, postnuptial, postoperative, postscript and postwar. Some words that include a hyphen are post-bellum, post-mortem, post-tax, post-Kennedy.

pre –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix pre. The following are examples of exceptions where hyphens are used if a prefix ends in a vowel and the word that follows begins with the same vowel, as in pre-election, pre-eminent, pre-empt, pre-establish and pre-exist. Otherwise, follow Webster's New World. Examples include prearrange, precondition, precook, predate, predispose, preflight, preheat, prehistoric, prejudge, premarital, prenatal, pretax and prewar. Some hyphenated words not listed in the dictionary are pre-convention and pre-dawn.

pro –
Use a hyphen for words that describe support for something, as in pro-abortion, pro-business, pro-choice, pro-labor, pro-peace, pro-life and pro-war. No hyphen is necessary when pro for other uses, as in produce, profile or pronoun.

re –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix re. The following examples of exceptions to first-listed spellings in Webster's New World are based on the general rule that a hyphen is used if a prefix ends in a vowel and the word that follows begins with the same vowel: re-elect, re-election, re-emerge, re-employ, re-enact, re-engage, re-enlist, re-enter, re-entry, re-equip, re-examine, re-establish. The following lists similar words with the prefix re that have different meanings: recover (regain), re-cover (cover again), reform (improve), re-form (form again), resign (quit), re-sign (sign again). Otherwise, follow Webster's New World.

sub –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix sub, but in general do not hyphenate, as in subbasement, subcommittee, subculture, subdivision, suborbital, submachine gun, subtotal and subzero.

super –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix super, but in general do not hyphenate, as in superpose, supercarrier, supercharge, supercollider, supercomputer, superhighway, superpower and supertanker.

trans –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix trans, but in general do not hyphenate, as in transoceanic, transcontinental, transmigrate, transsexual and transship. Do hyphenate trans-Siberian, trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific. A hyphen is needed when a prefix precedes a capitalized word.

ultra –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix ultra, but in general do not hyphenate, as in ultramodern, ultranationalism, ultrasonic or ultraviolent.

un –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix un, but in general do not hyphenate, as in un-American, unarmed, unnecessary, unshaven.

under –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix under, but in general do not hyphenate, as in underdog, underground, undersheriff and undersold.

up –
See the general rules for words beginning with the prefix up, but in general do not hyphenate, as in upend, upgrade, upscale, upstate, uptown.

vice –
Do not hyphenate when using the prefix vice for the following: vice admiral, vice chairman, vice chancellor, vice consul, vice president, vice principal, vice regent, vice secretary. Several are exceptions to Webster's New World. The two-word rule has been adopted for consistency in handling similar terms.

wide –
Usually hyphenated, as in wide-angle, wide-eyed, wide-awake, wide-open and wide-brimmed. One exception is widespread.

prime minister, premier In the case of South Korea, prime minister is the correct term. Use prime minister unless the government concerned is known to prefer premier, as it is the case with China. PM is acceptable in headlines.

prion A specific type of misshapen protein that is believed to cause mad cow disease in cows and the variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease in humans. Researchers say prion, which acts as an infectious agent in mad cow disease, destroys brain tissue and gives it a sponge-like appearance. The disease can occur after prions accumulate in a cow’s body over a long period of time. See mad cow disease, CJD

Progressive Justice Party The minor opposition party. Abbreviation PJP is acceptable on second reference.

prosecutors Do not add an apostrophe to the proper names of public prosecutors’ offices: the Supreme Prosecutors Office, the Seoul Central Prosecutors Office, the Seoul Eastern District Prosecutors Office, the Seoul Western District Prosecutors Office, the Seoul Northern District Prosecutors Office. See courts.

public holidays (South Korea)

Jan. 1 New Year’s Day
Jan. 1 (lunar) Seol, Lunar New Year’s Day. See Seol
March 1 March 1 Independence Movement Day (Provide an explanation when necessary: a ceremony marking the anniversary of the 1919 uprising against Japanese colonial rule)
May 5 Children’s Day
April 8(lunar) Buddha’s Birthday
June 6 Memorial Day
Aug. 15 Liberation Day (Provide the following explanation: Wednesday marked the 62nd anniversary of Korea’s liberation from Japan’s 1910-45 colonial rule.)
Aug. 15 (lunar) Chuseok, Korea’s fall harvest holiday
Oct. 3 National Foundation Day
Oct. 9 Hangeul Day (Provide an explanation: A national holiday to celebrate the invention and proclamation of the Korean alphabet in 1446)
Dec. 25 Christmas

punctuation Punctuation in writing serves the same purpose as inflections in speaking. Proper phrasing avoids ambiguity, ensures clarity and lessens the need for punctuation. Shorter sentences can often do away with punctuation. Do not use the ampersand symbol ( & ). Other marks, such as $, # and * are also not to be used.

No apostrophe is required in names of official bodies or organizations, e.g. the Seoul Prosecutors Office, the Bankers Club

The colon is most frequently used at the end of a sentence to introduce lists, tabulations, texts, etc.
Committee chairmanships won by the parties were: the GNP eight, the DP six and the DLP two.

The colon is also used in clock time, as in 11:25 a.m.

Use the colon for dialogue and question-and-answer interviews.
Q: What is the significance of Cheonggye Stream restoration and why must it start now despite all the controversy and opposition from civic groups?
A: The restoration is urgent because of the threat to public safety.

Of all the marks of punctuation, the comma offers the most difficulty in use and the widest range for individual choice.

The following guidelines treat some of the most frequent questions about its use.

-- Use commas to separate a series of adjectives equal in rank. Adjectives that can be rearranged or substituted within a sentence have equal meaning: A young, beautiful woman, a high, dangerous mountain

-- Commas should be omitted when the last adjective before a noun outranks its predecessors because it is an integral element of a noun phrase, as in an old compact car or fresh orange juice.

-- A comma separates an introductory clause or phrase from a main clause. But it may be omitted after a short introductory phrase if no ambiguity results. When he found the mistake a few days later, he panicked and tried to cover it up. In a sense, he was a coward.

-- The comma should be used to set off attribution. The examination, the teacher said, will be easier this year.

-- Use a comma to avoid confusion. The company was established on Aug. 21, 1970. In 1995, 75 percent of the graduates of the school went to college.

-- A comma usually indicates the place of an omitted word or word group. The tractor is used for hauling and the bulldozer, for excavating.

-- Use commas to prevent misreading or ambiguity. As the car struck, the utility pole fell with a crash.

-- In an enumerative series, a comma is not required before the words "and" or or, but use commas in an enumerative combination of independent sentences.
Wrong: red, white, and blue. Hyundai, Kia, Nissan
Right: red, white and blue. Hyundai, Kia and Nissan


Wrong: The money will be spent for investment, technology innovation, research, development and infrastructure.
Right: The money will be spent for investment, technology innovation, research and development, and infrastructure. (R and D is a single concept)

Wrong: Kookmin Bank gained 2 percent, POSCO rose 2.1 percent and SK Telecom added 1.0 percent.
Right: Kookmin Bank gained 2 percent, POSCO rose 2.1 percent, and SK Telecom added 1.0 percent.

-- No comma is required in years, auto engine capacity. the year 2000, a 2000 cc car

-The dash may be used instead of parentheses or commas when greater emphasis is desired. Use two hyphens to make a dash, with a space on both sides.
The three Northeast Asian countries -- South Korea, China and Japan -- decided to postpone ...
Nineteen North Koreans -- five men and 14 women -- flew to Incheon International Airport.

Ellipses denote dropped material in quotes. Use three periods with no space within quotations. A police spokesman said, ''An investigation ... has started to prove his involvement… "

>exclamation mark (!)
Use the mark to express high degree of surprise, incredulity or other strong emotion. Place the mark inside quotation marks when part of the quoted material. Do not use a comma or a period after the exclamation mark: “Of course not!” she shouted. Use only in quotes, and sparingly.

The use of parentheses should be minimized because they are jarring to the reader. There are occasions, however, when parentheses are the only effective means of inserting necessary background or information.
The envoy said, "We're not thinking of imposing economic sanctions (against the North) ...

-- The period is used after a declarative or mildly imperative sentence. The rainy season is over. Open the window.

-- The period is used if a statement is more a suggestion than a question. Why don't we go.

-- The period is used at the end of an indirect question. He asked who the woman was.

-- The period is often used in abbreviations, as in the U.N., the U.S. But acronyms of compound names of international organizations and government movement agencies, especially those comprising three or more letters, are not usually followed by periods. UNESCO, ASEAN, the FKI, the GNP, the UDP

-- The period separates an integer and a decimal, as in 13.57 percent, 10.40 won, 3.5 tons

-- The period is omitted after a letter is casually used as a name. The youths were identified as A and B because they were minors.

-- Both the comma and the period always go inside quotation marks. He said, “I will go.” "I will go,” he said

>quotation mark
Quotation marks are used around phrases connoting irony, around slang or newly coined expressions, title of books, plays, poems, songs, lectures, movies, or TV programs: He described himself as a "brave man." "Meet the Press,” "Saigon," "Shiri'” "Star Wars"

-- Enclose a quotation within a quotation as follows: The man said, "I heard her shout, 'Don't come closer,' and run away."

-- When both single and double quotation marks occur at the end of a sentence, the period falls within both sets of marks, with a space between the two marks.
The man said, "I heard her shout, 'Don’t come closer'."

-- Use quotation marks instead of parentheses around nicknames. Lee Myung-bak was nicknamed “the bulldozer” during his time in the construction industry.

-- For direct quotations, surround the speaker’s exact words. "We have no plans for the holidays," she said. "I don’t mind," he said, "If they lose." Franklin said, "A penny saved is a penny earned." An analyst said the market was "neither bullish nor bearish.

>slash mark
A slash (/) is used between two words to indicate that the meaning of either word pertains. The prime minister and/or foreign minister would be invited to the meeting. Red and/or pink paint will do.


quarter Can use Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 in headlines of earnings stories.

Quran The Muslim Holy Book. Preferable to Koran.


railroads Capitalize railway lines as proper nouns: the Gyeongbu Line, the Honam Line. But the Gyeongbu railway, the Gyeongui railway, the Gyeongwon route, the Cheongryangni-Guro route.

Ramsar Convention The intergovernmental treaty on the conservation of important wetlands, adopted on Feb. 2, 1971 in the Iranian city of Ramsar, went into force in 1975. Member states have agreed to designate not only wetlands, rivers and lakes, but also tidelands, seaweed beds and coral reefs under the treaty, officially called the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat. South Korea, which acceded to the treaty in 1997, had 18 sites included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance as of May 7, 2013.

As of May 2013, the convention had 167 contracting parties with 2,122 wetlands designated for inclusion under the Ramsar List, covering 205 million hectares.

The South Korean sites are:
*1100 Altitude Wetland, Jeju Province
*Dongbaekdongsan , Jeju Province
*Du-ung Wetland, South Chungcheong Province
*Ganghwa Maehwamarum Habitat, Incheon, west of Seoul
*Gochang and Buan Tidal Flats, Gomso Bay
*Han River-Bamseom Islets, Seoul
*Jangdo Island High Moor, South Jeolla Province
*Jeungdo Tidal Flat, South Jeolla Province
*Moojechineup, Ulsan
*Muan Tidal Flat, South Jeolla Province
*Muljangori-oreum wetland, Jeju Province
*Mulyeongari-oreum, Jeju Province
*Odaesan National Park Wetlands, Gwangwon Province
*Seocheon Tidal Flat, South Chungcheong Province
*Suncheon Bay, South Jeolla Province
*The High Moor, Yongneup of Mt. Daeam, Gangwon Province
*Ungok Wetland, North Jeolla Province
*Upo Wetland, South Gyeongsang Province

ramyeon Use this Korean spelling with quotes, instead of the Japanese equivalent of ramen, when referring to Korean-made instant noodles: Korean hot instant noodles, or "ramyeon.” The English spelling of the word is not universal across the South Korean industry. Industry leader Nong Shim Co. uses ramyun, while Samyang Foods Co., Ottogi Co. and Korea Yakult Co. name their products ramen.

religious titles Capitalize a religious title before the name of an individual. On second reference, use only a last name: the Rev. Kim Sun-tae, Kim on second reference. Nicholas Cardinal Cheong Jin-suk, Cheong or the cardinal on second reference.

Rengo Abbreviation for the Japanese Trade Union Confederation, Japan’s largest labor group.

Revolutionary Martyrs Cemetery Established in 1975, the North Korean state-run cemetery on Mount Daesong in Pyongyang is intended for family members of North Korea’s founder Kim Il-sung, anti-Japanese guerrilla leaders and senior government officials. About 160 people are interred at the cemetery. See national cemeteries

RFID Abbreviation for radio frequency identification. OK on first reference. Spell out on second reference: RFID tag

Rhee Syng-man (March 26, 1875-July 19,. 1965) South Korea’s first president who held office from 1945-60. Not Syngman Rhee.

RIMPAC Refers to the Rim of the Pacific Exercise, a multinational naval exercise first launched in 1971, involving mainly Pacific Rim countries.

ringleader Write as one word


saber-rattling The word has a hyphen. Not saber rattling.

Saemaul Movement Not Saemaeul. Launched by then President Park Chung-hee in 1970, the nationwide campaign helped South Korea rebuild its economy from the ruins of the 1950-53 Korean War. Saemaul means new community or new village. The nongovernmental body engaged in the campaign is the Seoul-based National Council of Saemaul Undong. Undong means movement or campaign.

Saenuri Party Usually, the conservative Saenuri Party or the ruling Saenuri Party. Saenuri is acceptable on second reference. The party was formerly known as the Grand National Party. Saenuri, a Korean word, means new world.

said The verb said is the best and safest choice in most attributed reports. Use claimed if you have any doubt about the verity of the statement. Other verbs that may be used in attribution include stress, emphasize, point out, underscore.

samurai bonds A dollar-denominated bond floated in Japan by a non-Japanese company. See kimchi bonds/p>

SARS The acronym for severe acute respiratory syndrome is OK for all reference. Preferably explain the acronym somewhere in the story.

satellite names Use Arabic numerals for all satellites, and capitalize the proper name but not the word satellite. Do not put a hyphen between the figure and the proper name. South Korea’s Arirang 2 satellite and Koreasat 5. The same rule applies to missile names. See missile names

Security Consultative Meeting The highest channel for reviewing and coordinating far-reaching security issues between South Korea and the United States. SCM is used on second reference.

SejongSouth Korea’s new administrative city in the country’s central region some 150 kilometers south of Seoul. Under the capital relocation plan first suggested by then presidential candidate Roh Moo-hyun in 2002, 16 central government ministries and offices as well as 20 subsidiary organizations are scheduled to move there in phases by 2014.

As of January 2013, six ministries -- including the finance ministry, the agriculture ministry, and the transportation ministry -- along with seven subsidiary organizations finished moving to their new offices in the Sejong Government Complex.

The city is named after King Sejong of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), the inventor of the Korean alphabet. The government complex buildings in downtown Seoul and Gwacheon, a southern Seoul suburb, will continue to be home to several ministries, including the foreign, unification and justice ones, and other agencies that have been located outside the buildings due to space constraints. Sejong stands alone in the dateline.

Self-Defense Forces The Japanese Army is always used as a plural. Abbreviate SDF on second reference and headlines. The SDF are made up of Air Self-Defense Force, Ground Self-Defense Force and Maritime Self-Defense Force.

semiconductor Synonymous with integrated circuit, microchip, chip

Seodaemun Prison A facility in Seoul where leaders of anti-Japan resistance movements were imprisoned during the 1910-1945 Japanese colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula. Now a museum.

Seol The lunar New Year’s Day is one of two major Korean traditional holidays, the other being Chuseok. See Chuseok

Seoul Seoul, a special administrative city of South Korea, serves as the country’s capital. The city is surrounded by the metropolitan city of Incheon and Gyeonggi Province, and bisected by the Han River. Twenty-five wards, each headed by an elected ward chief, constitute Seoul. The 25 are Gangseo, Yangcheon, Guro, Yeongdeungpo, Geumcheon, Dongjak, Gwanak, Seocho, Gangnam, Sonpa, Gangdong, Mapo, Yongsan, Seongdong, Gwangjin, Seodaemun, Jongno (Not Jongro), Jung, Dongdaemun, Jungnang (Not Jungrang), Eunpyeong, Seongbuk, Gangbuk, Dobong and Nowon. The Seoul metropolitan area often refers to the 23 wards, Incheon and nearby cities of the province. Seoul has an elected mayor, who heads the Seoul metropolitan government. The official name of Seoul’s police force is the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency.

Seoul metropolitan government Not Seoul Metropolitan Government. See City Hall.

ship name For names of Korean ships, combine the name and the following Korean word “ho” with a hyphen: the 5,000-ton Sambong-ho. Place any numbers after the name: the Iljin-ho No. 3, the Munchang-ho No. 201

SK hynix Not SK Hynix

soju The Korean traditional distilled liquor, made from rice and other starches, including sweet potatoes or barley. OK to use without quotes.

songi Use the term songi with quotes, instead of the Japanese matsutake, when referring to “songi” mushrooms grown in South and North Korea.

songun North Korea’s “songun” -- military-first – policy, introduced by late leader Kim Jong-il, devotes much of the country’s scare resources to its troops. It is the North’s ruling philosophy, and has been in place since Kim Jong-il came to power after his father and the country’s founder, Kim Il-sung, died in 1994. Use lower case with quotes. Capitalize if used as an adjective preceding a proper noun:” “Songun” Korea. See juche

South Korea, South Korean For South Korea-originated stories, use the government or South Korea rather than the South Korean government : SEOUL, May 7 (Yonhap) -- The government said… ; SEOUL, May 7 (Yonhap) -- South Korea said…

South Korean may be used in South Korea-originated stories if necessary to avoid confusion or to identify nationality: SEOUL, May 7 (Yonhap) -- South Korean stocks closed higher …

South Korean may be omitted from a title if the story originates from South Korea, or when there is no foreign counterpart to the titleholder or a compelling reason to identify the titleholder’s nationality. Awkward: President Lee Myung-bak and his U.S. counterpart George W. Bush. Better: South Korean President Lee Myung-bak and his U.S. counterpart George W. Bush.

In the case of stories originating from countries other than South Korea, add South Korean before a title: BEIJING, Aug. 8 (Yonhap) -- South Korean President Lee Myung-bak arrived in Beijing Friday to attend the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games and meet with Chinese leaders.

South, North Both the South and the North can be used on second and later references in stories that involve South Korea and North Korea. See direction; region

South Korea-U.S. Combined Forces Command Acronym CFC can be used on second reference. The CFC is in charge of carrying out OPLAN 5027, a joint defense plan made by South Korea and the United States in the event of a North Korean invasion. The plan aims to remove the North Korean regime and defeat its 1.2 million-strong military in case of an armed conflict on the Korean Peninsula. Starting 2013, the South Korean military leads the exercise under a new operational plan, tentatively codenamed OPLAN 5015, to prepare for Seoul to retake wartime operational control of its troops from the U.S. in 2014.

On March 22, 2013, the militaries of the two allies signed a new joint operational plan to enable them to respond to North Korea’s limited-scale provocations, such as an isolated incident or cross-border shelling. The Combined Counter-Provocation Plan, which is led by South Korea and supported by the U.S., calls for South Korea's military to take an active role in the initial stage of a contingency on the Korean Peninsula by striking the origin of the enemy's provocation and supporting and command forces. If the situation were to then escalate, the U.S. military would provide reinforcements from within and outside of South Korea, including Japan and elsewhere in the region

About 28,500 American soldiers are stationed in South Korea as a legacy of the 1950-53 Korean War. See wartime operational control

smartphone Not smart phone.

spelling First look up the word in this stylebook. If it does not appear, refer to Webster’s New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

Yonhap follows American spellings, except for proper nouns: amid (not amidst), labor (not labour), among (not amongst), jail (not gaol), color (not colour), theater (not theatre), defense (not defence), rumor (not rumour), favor (not favour), analyze (not analyse). Note the spellings of proper nouns: the Endeavour space shuttle, New Zealand Labour Party, International Aluminium Institute.

When the Dictionary offers alternatives, use only the first one: employee (not employe), glamour (not glamor), glamorous (not glamourous), sulfur (not sulphur), kidnapped, kidnapping, kidnapper (double p), traveled, traveling, traveler (single l), totaled, totaling (single l), controlled, controlling (double l)

No "s" on such prepositions and adverbs as toward, backward, afterward, forward, homeward. Use besides to mean "in addition."

spouse The term spouse can refer to both a husband and/or a wife. As such avoid using the term spouse when describing a group of married women. Use the term wives instead. A gathering of foreign military wives learn how to prepare traditional Korean dishes.

Sri Lanka The people of Sri Lanka are Sri Lankans, with the language being Sinhalese.

SRM The acronym for a specified risk material, which poses a risk of mad cow disease infection. OK to use on second reference. See mad cow disease.

ssireum Passed down from ancient times, ssireum is a traditional Korean form of wrestling. A ssireum match begins with two players grasping each other’s satba, or cloth waist cord worn by wrestlers. Use lowercase with quotes unless it is used as part of a proper name: traditional Korean wrestling “ssireum,” the Korea Ssireum Association.

Statistics Korea Refers to South Korea’s state-run statistics agency, formerly known as the National Statistical Office

Status of Forces Agreement SOFA is OK on second reference. The Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) between South Korea and the United States, which came into force in 1967, governs the legal status of U.S. troops stationed in South Korea. Seoul and Washington agreed in 2012 to give more legal jurisdiction to Seoul authorities over serious crimes involving U.S. troops before they are charged. Under the revised agreement, Korean law enforcement officials can take U.S. military personnel into custody before the suspect is charged in cases of heinous crimes such as murder or rape. Currently, SOFA only gives South Korean police the right to take U.S. military personnel into custody if the suspect is caught red-handed in such serious crimes. Critics say the rules go too far in protecting U.S. soldiers. Calls for the revision to SOFA have mounted as the South Korean government continues efforts to expand South Korean jurisdiction over crimes committed by U.S. service members.

stewardess Use flight attendant rather than this term.

still-high Avoid where possible, as this term is somewhat awkward. More common usage would be Interest rates are still high. Other synonyms for still-high are persistent, lingering, continuing, as in Continuing high oil prices have shaken the local economy.

stowaway See illegal entrant

suffixes If a word combination is not listed in Webster's New World, use two words for the verb form and hyphenate any noun or adjective forms.

e.g: Ambassador-designate. Capitalize only the first word if used as a formal title before a name: U.S. Ambassador-designate to South Korea Kathleen Stephens.

Follow Webster's New World. Some example (all nouns and/or adjectives): breakdown, clampdown, countdown, sit-down. All are two words when used as verbs.

Always hyphenate and put in lower case: President-elect Lee.

No hyphen for numbers from two to nine: twofold. Above nine do use hyphens: 10-fold, 11-fold, etc. Do not use this suffix with fractions and decimals, as in a 2.4¬ fold increase.

Precede with a hyphen: break-in (noun) cave-in (noun) walk-in (adjective)

Do not use hyphen unless you need to avoid a triple "I." businesslike, lifelike, shell-like

No hyphen between adverbs ending in ly and adjectives they modify: An easily remembered rule, a badly damaged car, a fully informed person. See compound words.

Follow Webster's New World. If not listed there or in this stylebook, then hyphenate. Commonly used combinations are send-off, stop-off (both nouns).
Combinations without hyphens (all nouns): cutoff, liftoff, playoff, standoff, takeoff.

Follow Webster's New World. Hyphenate nouns and adjectives not listed there or in this stylebook. Some frequently used words (all nouns): cop-out, fade-out, hide-out, fallout flameout holdout pullout washout

Follow Webster's New World. If not listed there or in this stylebook, then hyphenate. Some frequently used words (all are nouns, some also are used as adjectives): carry-over, change-over, holdover, stopover, takeover, walkover.

Follow Webster's New World. If not listed there or in this stylebook, then hyphenate: breakup, checkup, crackup, holdup, letup, lineup, makeup, markup, pileup, roundup, setup, smashup, speedup, windup, call-up, change-up, cover-up, follow-up, frame-up, grown-up, mix-up, mock-up, push-up, runners-up, shake-up, shape-up.

Do not hyphenate the following: citywide, continentwide, countrywide, groupwid, industrywide, nationwide, statewide, worldwide.

No hyphen when the meaning is in the direction of or with regard to: clockwise, lengthwise, otherwise, slantwise. The word penny-wise is hyphenated because wise in this context means smart.


Taegeukgi South Korea’s national flag, with the “taegeuk” symbol centered on a white background and four trigrams, one in each corner of the flag. Always capitalize and use with the article the. See unification flag.

tanks (armored vehicles) The following list is for informational purposes.

- tanks: Tanks, also called main battle tanks, usually have turrets and are designed to break through enemy lines and engage enemy armor in combat. These vehicles are well protected, have powerful main armaments and are highly mobile.

- mechanized infantry fighting vehicles (MIFV): MIFV are armored vehicles that are armed with relatively powerful automatic cannons and machine guns. They can ferry troops across the battle field while at the same time offering fire support to disembarked troops. Some MIFV are equipped with anti-tank missiles.

- armored personnel carriers (APC): APCs are armored vehicles whose primary mission is to ferry troops in the battlefield by offering high degree of protection. These types of armored vehicles usually have small-caliber automatic cannons or machine guns and generally can carry more troops than MIFVs.

- armored cars: Armored cars are lightly protected military vehicles. Many are wheeled vehicles and are not designed to engage enemy armor, although they can destroy other armored vehicles using automatic cannons. These types of fighting vehicles can be used in the reconnaissance role or by paramilitary units and the police.

Tehran Not Teheran

telecom Short for telecommunications. OK to use on first and second reference. Use telecommunications in preference to telecom.

telecommunications company Not telecommunication company.

temperature Use C for Celsius when accompanied by a figure and use a numeral without the word degrees as in 30 C.

tenses Adhere to the sequence of tenses rule. But the second verb in a sentence may be put in the present, present perfect and future tenses.

Wrong: The union said it would launch a strike.
Right: The union said it will launch a strike.

Wrong: He said the new proposal was worth studying.
Right: He said the proposal is worth studying.

Wrong: The company said it had set up a subsidiary in China.
Right: The company said it has set up a subsidiary in China.

that Delete that as a conjunction when the meaning remains unchanged without it. Avoid: He said that he will oppose the plan. Preferred: He said he will oppose the plan.

The conjunction that is occasionally needed for clarity: The minister announced that the price hike will be implemented. Avoid: The minister announced the price hike will be implemented.

Verbs that require that include: regret, assume, calculate, maintain, suggest, propose, estimate, point out. Do not delete that before subordinate clauses beginning with conjunctions such as while, after, because, before and until.

time Always write in numerals, with a colon between hour and minute: 10:30 a.m., 9:50 p.m.

-- dates
Feb. 8, 1970 He was born on Feb. 8, 1970.
February 1970 (No comma between the month and the year.) She was born in February 1970.

-- dates of the week Standard abbreviations for use in charts, tables, etc.: Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat.

-- months Abbreviate only when the month is followed immediately by a date or it is used in datelines: March 1, 1919. Standard abbreviations: Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

time element Place the time element after the verb, not before, unless there is no compelling reason to do otherwise. Weak: President Lee Myung-bak on Tuesday said…. Stronger: President Lee Myung-bak said Tuesday.

The time element placed before the verb is to avoid awkward placements of the time element, particularly those that suggest the day of the week is the object of a transitive verb.

Awkward: The police jailed Tuesday the man who was picked on the street. Preferred: The police on Tuesday jailed the man who was picked on the street.

Use on to avoid any suggestion that a date is the object of a transitive verb: The National Assembly killed on Tuesday a bill to raise taxes. Avoid using a date or the day of the week without on after a transitive verb. Most times a story will read better when the day of the week is placed away from the transitive verb.

Use on before a date or the day of the week to avoid an awkward juxtaposition of a date and a proper name: Lee met Bush on Monday. Awkward: Lee met Bush Monday

On can be omitted before a date or the day of the week when its absence would not lead to confusion: The meeting will be held Monday. The company said Friday it will cut its workforce by 10 percent this year.

titles Capitalize titles only when used directly before the person’s name. In general a title precedes the name: Prime Minister Han Seung-soo, U.S. President George W. Bush.

Longer titles, however, should follow after the name: Kim Sung-han, a professor at Korea University, Ma Yong-sam, director-general of the Foreign Ministry’s Middle Eastern and African Affairs Bureau. Avoid: Director General Ma Yong-sam of the Foreign Ministry’s Middle Eastern and African Affairs Bureau.

Private titles such as company presidency and chairmanship should, as a rule, be placed after names: Cho Choong-hwan, president of Hankook Tire Co. or Hankook Tire President Cho Choong-whan. Do not write: President Cho Choong-hwan of Hankook Tire Co.

The following civilian titles, when preceding names, are abbreviated: Sen. (Senator), Rep. (Representative), Gov. (Governor), the Rev. (the Reverend). When any of these titles are used in the plural, spell them out: Senators Tom Smith and John Organ (Not: Sens). Gov. should be limited to provincial, state or prefectural governor Gangwon Gov. Kim Jin-sun, Hawaii Gov. Henry Smith. But Bank of Korea Gov. Lee Seong-tae is allowed

Only use Dr. before names of medical doctors: Dr. Kim Il-chul. Do not use Prof. before a person’s name. Instead, use: Kim Il-chul, a professor of economics.

Do not use such courtesy titles as Mr., Miss, and Mrs. or Ms before names. See Mr., Mrs.

Military titles are abbreviated when placed before the name: Gen., Lt. Gen., Maj. Gen., Brig. Gen., Adm., Lt., Col., Capt., 1st Lt., M Sgt., Pvt., Cmdr., Lt. Cmdr. See APPENDIX: Armed Forces Ranks

Do not hyphenate titles: vice minister, deputy prime minister, secretary general, director general, ambassador at large. But: secretary-treasurer, manager-accountant (double occupations or offices)

The prefix ex and suffix elect are hyphenated: ex-Prime Minister, ex-champion, ex-Ambassador, President-elect, Vice President-elect, Governor-elect. Former, a good alternative for ex and takes no hyphen: former South Korean President Kim Dae-jung, former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell.

For stories where more than one person share the same last name, use the person’s title to distinguish between them: President Lee Myung-bak and Ambassador Lee Tae-sik met at Cheong Wa Dae. President Lee spoke of improving bilateral ties.

Age specific terms can also be used to distinguish between persons with identical surnames: Kim Jong-il took over after his father, Kim Il-sung, died in 1994. The younger Kim has yet to groom a successor.

Trans-Pacific Partnership TPP on second reference. The Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade negotiations, led by the United States, involve 11 other Asia-Pacific countries, which are Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam. The TPP calls for the elimination in principle of all tariffs on trade items among its members.

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership TTIP on second reference. The European Union and the United States announced in February 2013 they would launch negotiations to form the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, a free trade agreement that would cover half of global economic output and link more closely huge U.S. and European markets accounting for about 30 percent of global trade.

typhoon Refers to storms originating in the Western pacific region and the China seas. Use hurricane for those of the Atlantic and cyclone when from the Indian Ocean. In a typhoon-related Korean copy, the wind velocity of a typhoon is usually given in meters per second.

Convert meters per second used in Korean copy into kilometers per hour by multiplying by 3.6.


Ulaanbaatar Not Ulan Bator. The name of the Mongolian capital is used by the Mongolian government.

Uijeongbu Not Euijeongbu

Ulchi Freedom Guardian The annual computer-based war exercise by South Korea and the United States, which began in 1975, is to foster joint South Korean-U.S. defense capability against a possible North Korean attack. The UFG, formerly known as the Ulchi Focus Lens, is a command post exercise of the two allies’ militaries that demonstrates their joint war scenario, Operation Plan 5027. See Key Resolve, South Korea-U.S. Combined Forces Command.

U.N. Command No need to spell out U.N. for the United Nations. See United Nations.

UNCMAC The U.N. Command Military Armistice Commission. Use abbreviation on second conference. The supervisory body of the Korean Armistice Agreement, which effectively ended the 1950-53 Korean War, handles most of interactions with North Korea’s military mission at the truce village of Panmunjom. See Armistice Agreement, Panmunjom.

under way Two words. One word when used as an adjective before a noun: an underway flotilla

UNESCO The acronym for the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Acronym UNESCO is OK for use on first reference in lead only. Otherwise, spell out on first reference and later references.

UNESCO World Heritage site The South Korean sites (10 as of March 2013) listed by UNESCO as World Cultural and Natural Heritage sites, followed by the years they were listed:

Haein Temple (14th century), in North Gyeongsang Province, which houses the Janggyeong Panjeon, or Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks, 1995

Jongmyo Shrine (14th century), located in Seoul, 1995

Seokguram Grotto and Bulguk Temple (8th century), North Gyeongsang Province, 1995

Changdeok Palace Complex (15th century), Seoul, 1997

Hwaseong Fortress (18th century), Suwon, Gyeonggi Province, 1997

Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites (between 7th and 5th century B.C.), 2000

Gyeongju Historic Areas Known as one of the largest outdoor museums in the world, the areas encompass the ruins of temples and palaces, outdoor pagodas and statuaries and other cultural artifacts left by the Silla Kingdom, 2000

Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes, Jeju Island, designated as a UNESCO World Natural Heritage site in 2007

Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), all scattered around the nation's capital, 2009

Historic Villages of Korea: Hahoe and Yangdong, located in Andong and Gyeongju of North Gyeongsang Province, 2010

Meanwhile, in July 2004, tomb complexes in North Korea dating from the Koguryo period (1st century BCE) were added to the list of World Heritage sites designated by the U.N. agency.

South Korean cultural assets under the UNESCO's Memory of the World collection (nine as of 2013), followed by the years they were listed:

Hunminjeongeum first appeared in the 15th century and is the first documented writing using the indigenous Korean alphabet, 1997

Joseon Wangjo Sillok refers to the official annals of the Joseon Dynasty, 1997

Seungjeongwon Ilgi are the daily reports recorded by the royal secretary's office during the Joseon Dynasty, 2001

Jikjisimcheyojeol is the world's oldest book printed using movable metal type, 2001

Uigwe are the royal records of the Joseon Dynasty, 2007

Triipitaka Koreana refers to the 13th century Buddhist canon consisting of over 80,000 hand-carved wooden blocks housed at Haein Temple, 2007

Donguibogam is a traditional Korean medical encyclopedia on oriental medicine authored in 1613 by Heo Jun, a court physician, 2009

Ilseongnok refers to an official daily journal of state affairs kept in the form of personal diaries of Joseon kings from 1752 to 1910, 2011

Human Rights Documentary Heritage 1980 Archives for the May 18th Democratic Uprising against Military Regime, in Gwangju, include documents, photos, images, etc. relating to the uprising, punishment of the perpetrators, and compensation, 2011

Fifteen South Korean artistic traditions appear on UNESCO's Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity List as of 2013, followed by the years they were listed:


Jongmyo Jeryeak is the ritual music played in two shrines dedicated to the 19 kings of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) and the 15 people of exceptional merit from the royal family, 2008

Pansori is Korea's traditional form of musical storytelling, 2008

Gangneung Dano Festival is celebrated in the city of Gangneung, Gangwon Province, and lasts five days before and after May 5th of the lunar calendar, 2008

Ganggangsullae is a 5,000-year-old dance in which people joined hands in a circle and sang under the full moon of the Chuseok fall harvest holiday, 2009.

Namsadangnori generally refers to performances staged by Namsadangpae, a vagabond troupe of 40 or more male performers who present various performing arts such as acrobatics, singing, dancing and playing like a circus, 2009

Yeongsanjae is a Buddhist ritual conducted to pray for the peace of a soul that did not believe in Buddha, 2009

Jeju Chilmeoridangyeongdeunggut is a shamanist ritual performed by women divers in a village on Jeju Island, 2009

Cheoyongmu is a mask dance performed in palaces based on a traditional tale, 2009

Gagok is a type of music, accompanied by a small orchestra, that was widely used for character development in the high society of the Joseon Dynasty, 2010.

Daemokjang is a Korean term for woodworkers who build important wooden architecture, such as palaces, temples and houses for nobility, or the craftsmanship they preserve, 2010

Maesanyang, or falcon hunting, is a traditional sport in Korea practiced in winter, 2010

Taekkyeon is a traditional Korean martial art that makes use of fluid, rhythmic dance-like movements to strike or trip an opponent, 2011

Jultagi, or tightrope walking, is a traditional acrobatic show in which a tightrope walker executes a variety of acrobatic feats on the rope, along with jokes, mimicry, songs and dance, and exchanges witty dialogue with an earthbound clown, 2011

Weaving of Mosi (fine ramie) in Hansan, the old name of today's Seocheon in South Chungcheong Province, involves a number of traditional processes, including harvesting, boiling and bleaching ramie plants, spinning yarn out of ramie fiber and weaving it on a traditional loom, 2011

Arirang is one of Korea's traditional folk songs handed down generation after generation, 2012

United Nations Spell out on first reference. The abbreviation U.N. is acceptable on second reference and in headlines. It is also OK when used as an adjective to a noun: U.N. Security Council

unification flag Often used as a symbol of Korean unification, the flag bears the image of a unified Korean Peninsula printed in blue on the white background: Athletes from the two Koreas marched together behind a unification flag. See Taegeukgi.

UNICEF Acceptable in first reference for U.N. Children’s Fund, but spell out high in the story.

United Kingdom Used in a political denotation, the United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain (or Britain), used in a geographical denotation, is made up of England, Scotland and Wales. Ireland is independent of the United Kingdom. Use Britain to refer to the United Kingdom. U.K. can be used in headlines. See Britain

United Progressive Party The minor opposition party. Abbreviation UPP is acceptable on second reference.

United States Spell out on first reference. The abbreviation U.S. may be used on second reference and in headlines, as well as in titles: U.S. President George W. Bush

U.N. Memorial Park About 2,300 U.N. soldiers, killed in the 1950-53 Korean War, are buried at the park, located in South Korea’s biggest port city of Busan

USFK Abbreviation for United States Forces Korea. Spell out on first reference. The United States officially maintains 28,500 troops in South Korea. South Korea and the United States have agreed to relocate the frontline U.S. 2nd Infantry Division and the Seoul-based Yongsan Garrison to Camp Humphreys in Pyeongtaek, some 70 kilometers south of Seoul, by 2016.

USTR The Office of the U.S. Trade Representatives. Spell out on first reference, but the abbreviation is OK on second reference and in headlines.

Utoro A district in the city of Uji, Japan’s Kyoto Prefecture. About 200 ethnic Koreans face eviction from the district's land, which they do not legally own but have resided on since World War II, when the Koreans or their ancestors were forced to migrate to Utoro and mobilized to work for Japan's military. The Korean Peninsula was under Japanese colonial rule during that period.


vCJD Acronym for the variant Creutzfeldt Jacob disease, the human variant of mad cow disease. It is OK for use on second reference. The variant CJD is linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy, better known as mad cow disease. Humans can be infected with a form of mad cow disease from eating contaminated meat. See mad cow disease.

verb Avoid inverting the subject-verb order in attribution. But the inversion of the subject order can occur when the subject wants to be given special emphasis or needs a long modifier: “Stagflation is visible in the second half, so sluggish consumption will continue to worsen,” said Roh Eun-jeong, a senior researcher of South Korea’s largest retailer Shinsegae Co.

verbal See oral.

Vietnamese names The family name comes first, but use the character of the given name on second reference: Vietnamese Prime Minister Phan Van Khai, Second reference: Khai.


warship classification The following list is for informational purposes.

-- cruiser: A large well-balanced ship that has equally potent ship-to-ship, anti-air and submarine warfare capabilities. A cruiser is usually armed with automatic cannons, missiles, torpedoes, close in weapons systems and have powerful sensors. Only a few navies around the world have ships classified as cruiser. The U.S. Navy has a large number of Ticonderoga class guided missile cruisers equipped with the Aegis combat system

-- destroyer: A warship that can counter aircraft threats, attack ships and submarines. South Korea has three classes of destroyers -- the 7,000-plus-ton Aegis destroyer King Sejong the Great-class, the 4,500-ton Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin-class and the 3,000-ton destroyer King Gwanggaeto the Great-class. South Korean Navy destroyers usually have 900-series pennant numbers. King Sejong the Great has a pennant number of 991 on the bow. Destroyers are generally smaller in size than cruisers but larger than frigates.

-- frigate: Employed to act as escorts for convoys or a fleet, a frigate has similar armaments to a destroyer, but may concentrate more on dealing with surface and submarine threats. South Korea has the Incheon-class, and Ulsan-class light frigates with displacements of around 2,300 tons. South Korean Navy Frigates have 800 or 900-series pennant numbers. Ulsan has a pennant number of 951 on the bow while the Incheon's pennant number is 811. Frigates are usually smaller in size than destroyers although larger vessels are able to deploy helicopters.

-- corvette: A corvette is a special purpose vessel with limited range and armament and unsuitable for blue ocean operations. Because it is smaller than destroyers and frigates, it cannot cope with anti-air, ship-to-ship and submarine actions simultaneously. Generally these vessels are too small to operate helicopters. South Korea has the 1,200-ton Pohang-class corvette that has 700-series pennant numbers. The Gongju has a pennant number of 785. Corvettes are smaller than frigates with some navies referring to this class of ship as large coastal patrol boats.

-- patrol boat: A small coastal vessel with almost no ocean-going capabilities. Usually designed for surface action, these boats are fast and maneuverable and armed with various types of guns and anti-ship missiles. South Korea has the large Yoon Young-ha-class (Gumdoksuri-class) patrol boats armed with missiles and guns, and the smaller Chamsuri-class boats.

-- cutter: Usually refer to a small or medium sized armed vessel used for various maritime operations, with a length of over 20 meters and a displacement reaching several thousand tons. The ship is usually employed by coast guard or maritime police. the 5,000-ton South Korean Coast Guard cutter Sambong

wartime operational control Abbreviation wartime OPCON is OK for use on second reference and in headlines. South Korea and the United States agreed in February 2007 that Seoul will take over the wartime OPCON of its forces from Washington at 10:00 a.m. on April 17, 2012. But South Korean President Lee Myung-bak and U.S. President Barack Obama agreed in June 2010 to extend Washington’s holding of the wartime OPCON until Dec. 1, 2015, and implement the OPCON transfer with no additional delay. Control of South Korean forces in both peacetime and war was placed in the hands of the U.S.-led U.N. Command shortly after the outbreak of the 1950-1953 Korean War. Seoul regained peacetime OPCON in 1994.

The transition will be followed by an immediate disbandment of the South Korea-U.S. Combined Forces Command (CFC). The two allies are in talks to map out an alternative model for the CFC following the 2015 transfer of OPCON. See South Korea-U.S. Combined Forces Command

Watchcon Not WATCHCON. Refers to a four-stage anti-North Korean surveillance alert level which is used and coordinated between the militaries of South Korea and the United States to measure reconnaissance posture, utilized often in matters concerning North Korea. Watchcon 4 is during normal peacetime. Watchcon 3 and Watchcon 2 indicate an important threat and a vital threat, respectively. Watchcon 1, the highest level, is in effect during wartime. See Defcon, Jindotgae alert.

website Not Web site, web site or Website

West Sea Do not use the West Sea for the body of water between the Korean Peninsula and China. Instead, use the Yellow Sea. See Yellow Sea

whisky, whiskey Use whisky for those brands made in Scotland and whiskey for those made in Ireland and the U.S.. The respective plural forms are whiskies and whiskeys.

will Avoid saying that something will happen unless it is a certainty, when referring to a company or a person’s future plans. Even if a company says it will cut 10 percent of its workforce by next year, it could be what the company intends to do. So either attribute such sentences or use a less definite construction like plans to, intends to and is to.

WiBro Short for Wireless Broadband. Acceptable on first reference. The South Korean industry-developed technology, based on U.S. software firm Intel Corp.'s WiMAX standard, enables users to log onto high-speed Internet even when they are in motion. Not Wibro.

Wi-Fi Not WiFi. Short for wireless fidelity, Wi-Fi refers to a popular networking technology that allows computers and other electronic devices to communicate over a wireless signal. The word can stand alone on first reference.

World War II Not Second World War. The acronym WWII is acceptable in headlines.

won Do not use the \ sign for the South Korean currency: 100 won, more than 1 million won. Use numerals up to two decimal places: 2.54 billion won. Do not combine numerals and the word won with a hyphen: a 400 million won deal, Not a 400-million-won deal.

World Expo The official sanctioning body is the Bureau of International Exhibitions (BIE). In 2012, the South Korean coastal city of Yeosu hosted the international fair under the theme, “The Living Ocean and the Coast: Diversity of Resources and Sustainable Activities.”

There are two types of the World Expo: registered and recognized. The Yeosu expo was a BIE-recognized one, which is smaller in scope and investments and generally shorter in duration than a BIE-registered one. See BIE

Workers’ Party of Korea The North Korean ruling party. Not Korea Workers’ Party. Acronym WPK is acceptable on second reference.


X-ray Capitalize X.


yakuza Use lowercase and explain as organized-crime gangs in Japan.

Yalu River See Amnok River

Yasukuni Shrine Capitalize the word shrine. The war-related shrine in Tokyo honors 2.5 million Japanese war dead, including 14 Class-A war criminals. Those criminals, including wartime Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, were hanged after an international tribunal convicted them following World War II. The tribunal, known as the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo, operated from early 1946 until the end of 1948. Within the shrine is the Yushukan museum that critics say exhibits displays glorifying Japan’s wartime history.

South Korea and China view the shrine as a symbol of Japan’s militarist past before and during World War II, a time when the two countries and other Asian countries suffered under Japanese aggression. With a view to avoiding diplomatic problems notably with the two Asian countries, Japanese politicians, including former Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda, have floated the idea of building a national war memorial for the war dead.. Visits to Yasukuni by a Japanese prime minister and other leaders unleash a storm of protests from Seoul and Beijing. The idea has yet to materialize.

Yellow Sea Not West Sea, as the Yellow Sea is better known internationally: South Korean companies set up operations in the city of Qingdao, China’s Shandong Province, across the Yellow Sea from the Korean Peninsula. See NLL

Yeongnam region Generally, the area surrounding South Korea’s southeastern swath of South Korea. The region, which consists of North Gyeongsang and South Gyeongsang provinces, and the Busan, Daegu and Ulsan metropolitan areas, is the ruling Grand National Party’s traditional stronghold.

Yi Sun-sin The name of the Korean naval hero, who defeated Japanese invaders in the 16th century, is Yi Sun-sin. Not Yi Sun-shin. The National Institute of the Korean Language, a state-run authority on the Romanization of Korean words and names, has ruled that the hero’s English name should be Yi Sun-sin.

Yongbyon Not Yeongbyeon or Youngbyon, North Korea has its main nuclear complex in Yongbyon, about 90 kilometers from Pyongyang.

YTN Do not spell out. Explain as cable news channel YTN.

yunnori One of folk games commonly played in the first month of the lunar calendar.


Zaytun unit South Korean troops that were deployed in the northern Iraqi city of Irbil from 2004-2008. Zaytun means olive in Arabic. The unit has been deployed to help reconstruct the Kurdish-controlled region at the request of the United States.

Zenkyo Abbreviation for the All Japan Teachers and Staff Union

Filing Procedures

Filing Format

The order of filing a story is as follows:

First: slug

Second: headline

Third: editor’s notes (ATTN)

Fourth: byline

Fifth: dateline (all caps), March 10 (Yonhap) -- text of the story

Sixth: (END) or (MORE)


N Korea-Kaesong
Headline (up to 66 characters. including blank spaces)
By Hong Gil-dong
(ATTN: This story is accompanied by one photo, which is available via e-mail)
SEOUL, March 10 (Yonhap) -- Text
(End) or (MORE)

Note: Capitalize only Y in (Yonhap).

*Category codes

Click category codes on the desk page of the company’s English editing system. There are 12 basic category codes, which are shown below, followed by secondary category codes per each basic category code and their subdivisions. Click the basic category code, secondary code and subdivision. More category codes will be created if necessary. If necessary, more than one code can be used.

Economics, Business
Social Affairs
IT, Science
North Korea


The first line gives the slug, which has up to three words with a hyphen: ministry-announcement. The slug also indicates if the item is a lead story, whether it is embargoed and if it is a feature, news focus, etc.

The slug should in principle be only one word or a compound word. No figures are allowed in the slug. G7, G8, etc. are exceptions.

For stories with overseas datelines (outside South Korea), the slug should be the name of the country concerned, followed by a key word, e.g.
US-nuclear issue, China-asylum seekers.

Examples of country and organization names that should be used: N Korea-, US-, UN-, Japan-, HK-, Bangladesh-, Britain-. Philippines-, Afghanistan-, Russia-, Sri Lanka-
Note: No periods after US, HK, UN, N or S Korea, but periods are still required in headlines and text. Do not use Bangla, UK, RP or ROK in slugs, headlines or text except in quotes.

The country name should be the country with which a story is concerned, not necessarily that used in the dateline. In reaction stories or where the name of the country is secondary, the country name should be placed after the key word, e.g. aid-N Korea, Yasukuni-Japan, trade-US


The second line is the headline. The count is a maximum of 66 characters, including spaces between words. Do not capitalize each word in the headline, except for proper nouns and acronyms:
Hu Jintao expected to visit S. Korea late August

The quotation mark in the headline should be single and a colon is used to show the source of the quotation.
Strikes aimed at 'overthrowing government’ unacceptable: minister
Use abbreviated names of weekdays in the headline: Sun., Mon., Tue., Wed., Thu., Fri., Sat.

Use an active verb preferably, but sometimes the subject of the story dictates the construction. Stronger: Ex-minister arrested on bribery charges Weaker: Police arrest ex-minister on bribery charges

Don’t use periods in the headline, Exceptions include U.S., U.N., S. Korea, N. Korea. The most widely used short forms are gov’t, mln, tln, bln, yr, yrs, nat’l, int’l, el’ec, assn, ind, mgt, pre, info and dlrs. Short forms of figures include 1st, 2nd, 3rd. See abbreviations, acronyms.

Avoid unfamiliar acronyms in heads and use abbreviations sparingly.


When a news focus or other feature-type article is one of a series, a line between the byline and the dateline is inserted to indicate the series.: (ATTN: Third in a series) Note: A series is three or more articles. Do not call two articles a series. Instead, the editor's note should say, This is the first of two articles ... , This is the second of two articles ...


The byline is inserted between the headline and the dateline, and is not indented:

N Korea -Kaesong
Headline (up to 66 characters, including blank spaces)
By Hong Gil-dong
SEOUL, March 10 (Yonhap) -- Text


The dateline place name is written as all capitals. Datelines are indented three spaces. SEOUL, June 30 (Yonhap) -- Text ...
SOKCHO, South Korea, June 30 (Yonhap) -- Text ...
MOUNT GEUMGANG, North Korea, June 30 (Yonhap) -- Text. ..

In the case of South Korea-originated stories, following cities stand alone in the dateline:
Names of other South Korean cities, towns and villages should be followed by the word South Korea.
JINCHEON, South Korea, June 5 (Yonhap) -- Text
GUMI, South Korea, June 10 (Yonhap) -- Text

In these stories, the name of the province, where the datelined city, town or village is located, can come in the 2nd or 3rd paragraph, or lower.
If it happens to be Seoul, the capital, it is all right to mention it in the lead. Foreigners are not familiar with specific names. In the lead, you can give the general area or direction as shown in the following example.

CHEONAN, South Korea, April 14 (Yonhap) -- At least four people were killed and six others injured when a truck rammed into a minivan Monday outside this town in central South Korea, police said.
The two vehicles collided while negotiating a curve near Cheonan, a town 92 kilometers south of Seoul, shortly after 3 p.m., they said.

For overseas stories, capital cities stand alone and other place names are generally followed by the country name. If the city is not the capital, the country name should come next with no capitalization except the first letter: PENANG, Malaysia: ANGELES, Philippines: DENPASAR, Indonesia: VLADIVOSTOK, Russia

Most U.S. cities should be followed by the name of a state in the dateline. State names should not be abbreviated. The following U.S. cities stand alone: ATLANTA, BOSTON, CHICAGO, DENVER, DETROIT, HONOLULU, HOUSTON, LOS ANGELES, NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, SAN FRANCISCO, SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

British cities should be followed by either England, Scotland, Wales, or Northern Ireland where they are located. Do not use Britain:
BELFAST, Northern Island
Not: EDINBURGH, Britain: LIVERPOOL, Britain: BELFAST, Britain

Famous non-capital cities in other countries standing alone without countries' names in the dateline include: BONN, CALCUTTA, GENEVA, FRANKFURT, THE HAGUE, HAMBURG, HO CHI MINH CITY, JOHANNESBURG, MELBOURNE, MECCA, MILAN, MONTREAL, MUNICH, NAPLES, ROTTERDAM, SHANGHAI, ST PETERSBURG, SYDNEY, TEL A VIV, TORONTO, VANCOUVER, VENICE Notable exceptions is: Mount GEUMGANG, North Korea. See Korean names.

In writing places, follow English versions, not versions of Italian, French or other languages: NAPLES (not NAPOLI), LYONS (not LYON)

The names of months in the dateline should be spelled as follows:
Jan., Feb., March, April, May. June. July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
Note: In text, do not abbreviate the above months. But abbreviate them if they are followed by figures, e.g. Jan. 25, Feb. 28, Aug. 20.

typographical formats

Paragraphs are indented three spaces. Do not use TAB key in indenting. Within a paragraph, sentences are separated by one space. Use a single space before and after a quote (if applicable), e.g. He said, “We will not tolerate any illegal actions and deal sternly with them in accordance with laws and principles.”


The word LEAD in a parenthesis is written in the slug line before the slug word or words, and the headline. The first lead is called simply LEAD. The first lead and subsequent leads should have an over-line to explain what is new and what changes are made, e.g.
(LEAD) NK nuclear-talks
(LEAD) Resumption of 6-party talks likely around July 10
(ATTN: UPDATES with Foreign Ministry’s spokesman’s briefing)
In subsequent leads use figures for the ordinal number, e.g.
(2nd LD) NK nuclear-talks
(ATTN: UPDATES with Lee’s quotes)
(3rd LD) NK nuclear-talks
(ATTN: UPDATES with political leaders’ response)
Other examples of an over-line when a story is led;
(ATTN: UPDATES with new quotes by North Korean official)
(ATTN: RECASTS to raise background)
(ATTN: COMBINES urgent series)
(ATTN: ADDS new meeting schedule)
(ATTN: SUBS 3rd paragraph to clarify that it’s an experimental reactor)
(ATTN: CORRECTS the name of reactor in 5th paragraph)
(ATTN: INSERTS dropped words in 9th paragraph)
(ATTN: FIXES typo in 3rd paragraph, Yongbyon, not Yongbyeon as sent)


for feature, news focus, news analysis, etc., the slug line should be written as follows
(YONHAP FEATURE) housing market
(NEWS FOCUS) LG Card-creditors tussle
(NEWS ANALYSIS) policy inconsistence


The highest priority news item is referred to as an URGENT.

URGENT: An URGENT consists of a slug with no words except for (URGENT) and a headline with a single line of up to 66 characters, including blank spaces between words. An URGENT can also have one or two paragraphs.

Starting with the first story and the lead stories that follow URGENTS, replace the (URGENT) slug with a slug of key words that pertain to the story. The reason key words are not given in the URGENT is to send the news items in a quick manner.

(URGENT) Park pledges strong response in case of N.K. provocations


(URGENT) Park pledges strong response in case of N.K. provocations
     SEOUL, April 1 (Yonhap) -- South Korea President Park Geun-hye on Monday instructed the military to set aside any political considerations and respond strongly in the event of North Korean provocations, as Pyongyang has churned out near-daily threats of war on the divided peninsula.

Corrections, substitutions, inserts, etc

If you make corrections, substitutions or inserts, you should move your new story in its entirety in the following format:
(LEAD) N Korea-nuclear
N. Korea threatens to restart mothballed nuclear reactor
(ATTN: SUBS 3rd paragraph to clarify that it's an experimental reactor)
(ATTN: CORRECTS the name of reactor in 5th paragraph)
(ATTN: INSERTS dropped words in 9th paragraph)
(ATTN: FIXES typo in 3rd paragraph, Yongbyon, not Yungbyeon as sent)

In the ATTN, if the updated section is in more than one paragraph, the abbreviation “paras” should come before the numbers of which paragraphs were edited. For example, (ATTN: ADDS prime minister’s comments in paras 5,7,11). If only one paragraph has been altered or added, an ordinal number should precede “para”. For example, (ATTN: UPDATES the 5th para).


The word embargoed and details of the embargo are put in parentheses in the slug line:
Lee-conference (Embargoed for release at 5.p.m. Mon.)

hold, ignore, kill

Hold is used to ask subscribers to delay using a story, such as when the story was moved before it should have been. A hold message should either say when the story can be released or should be followed by an advisory message indicating that it is being released, e.g.
(HOLD) ministry-ambassadors
Please hold below story, which must not be used until after Tuesday's cabinet meeting. We will inform you when it may be released

Ignore is used to ask subscribers not to use a story, for example, when the content is substantially the same as an item already on the file, e.g. (IGNORE) ministry-ambassadors
Please ignore above story, which was moved earlier.

Kill is used to ask subscribers not to use an item, either because of factual errors or because it breaks a strict embargo or was moved inadvertently, e.g.
(KILL) ministry-ambassadors
Please kill above story. Some of the figures contained in the story are incorrect

photo captions

Guidelines on caption writing for use in photos that are stored at the Yonhap photo news data service.

Caption format sample:
S. Korea resumes inspections of U.S. beef shipments
South Korean health officials carry out quarantine inspections of U.S. beef shipments at a refrigerated warehouse in the city of Yongin, Gyeonggi Province, on June 27, 2008, following the country's official posting the previous day of new import rules in a government journal. (Yonhap)

Do not write the dateline and use a date, not the day of the week: June 30, 2012, Jan. 10, 2013. Not Monday, Thursday.

Category codes: Click category codes on the desk page of the company’s English editing system. The codes are the same with those for stories. See category codes specified under filing format.

The dateline carries the place name, which should be in all capital, followed by the country name. In case of Hong Kong and Singapore, the format is:
HONG KONG, China –
SINGAPORE, Singapore –

Use a date, not the day of the week: June 30, Jan. 10. Not Monday, Thursday.

The description for positions of persons or things in photo captions is as follows: (L): for left, (R) for right, (C) for center. In one row: (2nd from L) means second from left. In two rows: (top, 1st from L), (bottom, 4th from R). In three rows: (front row, 3rd from L), (2nd [or middle] row, C), (3rd row [or back row], 2nd from R)

In case of using a file photo, uses the (file photo) mark: North Korea's leader, Kim Jong-il (file photo, C), tours an army unit on July 22. (Yonhap) In case of a pooled photo, add (Pool photo) to the end of the caption.

When photos are provided by government agencies or public organizations, make the reference at the end of the caption: The photo was provided by the Agriculture Ministry. or (Photo courtesy of Agriculture Ministry). If a photo provided by North Korea’s KCNA, use the (KCNA-Yonhap) credit.

Sports Guidelines

It is acceptable to use abbreviations and acronyms of certain well-known sport organizations on first reference. But spell out the abbreviations and acronyms on later reference:
WBC featherweight champion Chi In-jin
IOC President Jacques Rogge

Results of Korean Series Baseball Championship
SEOUL, Sept. 24 (Yonhap) -- Results of Korean Series Baseball Championship:
Saturday, Oct. 18
Game 1: Samsung Lions 5, Lotte Giants 4 (at Jamsil Stadium)
Final 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Samsung Lions 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 7 0
Lotte Giants 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0

>major leagues The organization of the North American professional baseball leagues is called the Major League Baseball. But when referring to individual players, teams or the two leagues (American and National leagues) in general, use lowercase: major leaguer Park Chan-ho. major league club Seattle Mariners, a 20-year career in the North American major leagues.

WBA, the Boxing Association
WBC, the World Boxing Council
OPBF, the Oriental and Pacific Boxing Federation

In football stories, the competing country or club should take singular verbs and pronouns as Yonhap follows the style of Associated Press for football stories.

There are 14 South Korean pro football teams under the K League Classic. They are: Suwon Samsung Bluewings, Busan IPark, Jeju United, Chunnam Dragons, Pohang Steelers, Ulsan Hyundai Tigers, Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors, Daejeon Citizen, FC Seoul, Daegu FC, Incheon United FC, Gyeongnam FC, Gangwon FC, Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma

Of the 14 clubs, up to three teams face relegation at the end of each season. The second division league is called the K League Challenge. The two worst K League Classic teams will be relegated automatically. The first-place team from the K League Challenge will play the third-to-last K League Classic team in a relegation playoff, with the winner joining the first division the following season.

Club names are usually not preceded by the article the: Suwon Samsung Bluewings edged Pohang Steelers 2-1 Sunday. But: The Steelers said in a press release…

Football Results Sunday at 14th Asian Games
BUSAN, Sept. 25 (Yonhap) – Football results at the 14th Asian Games:
Iran 2 Japan 1
Bronze medal match
South Korea 3 Thailand 0

Major events: Masters, U.S. Open, British Open, PGA Championship
KPGA, the Korea Professional Golfers Association
KLPGA, the Korea Ladies Professional Golfers Association
Sony-Open-final-round scores
HONOLULU, Dec. 12 (Yonhap) -- Final-round scores Sunday from the $4.5 million Sony Open, played at the 7,060-yard, par-70 Waialae Country Club.
Ernie Els, $810,000 66-65-66-67-264 16-under
Aaron Baddeley, $486,000 66-64-65-69--264
Chris DiMarco, $306,000 65-66-69-66--266 14-under

Racecourse is one word: Seoul Racecourse, Jeju Racecourse, Busan Racecourse. Common terms: colt (male horse 4 years and under), filly (female horse, under 5 years), furlong (220 yards or 201.17 meters, equal to 1/8 mile), Grade-1 race (or G-1), mare (female horse 5 years and older), quinella, sire (male parent of a horse), stud (male horse used for breeding), straightaway, win, place and show (1st, 2nd, 3rd)

>Names of the sports bodies affiliated with the Korean Olympic Committee.

  • Korea Association of Athletics Federation (대한육상경기연맹, KAAF)
  • Korea Football Association (대한축구협회, KFA)
  • Korea Tennis Association (대한테니스협회, KTA)
  • Korea Soft Tennis Association (대한정구협회, KSTA)
  • Korea Table Tennis Association (대한탁구협회, KTTA)
  • Korea Handball Federation (대한핸드볼협회, KHF)
  • Korea Weightlifting Federation (대한역도연맹, KWF)
  • Korean Amateur Boxing Federation (대한아마튜어복싱연맹, KABF)
  • Korea Skating Union (대한빙상경기연맹, KSU)
  • Korea Judo Association (대한유도회, KJA)
  • Korea Gymnastic Association (대한체조협회, KGA)
  • Korea Cycling Federation (대한사이클연맹, KCF)
  • Korea Basketball Association (대한농구협회, KBA)
  • Korea Volleyball Association (대한배구협회, KOVO)
  • Korea Ssireum Association (대한씨름협회)
  • Korea Rugby Union (대한럭비협회, KRU)
  • Korea Wrestling Federation (대한레슬링협회, KWF)
  • Korea Swimming Federation (대한수영연맹, KSF)
  • Korea Baseball Association (대한야구협회, KBA)
  • Korea Ski Association (대한스키협회, KSF)
  • Korean Equestrian Federation (대한승마협회, KEF)
  • Korea Ice Hockey Association (대한아이스하키협회, KIHA)
  • Korea Hockey Association (대한하키협회, KHA)
  • Korea Kumdo Association (대한검도회, KKA)
  • Korea National Archery Association (대한궁도협회, KNAA)
  • Korea Shooting Federation (대한사격연맹, KSF)
  • Korea Fencing Association (대한펜싱협회, KFA)
  • The Korea Taekwondo Association (대한태권도협회, KTA)
  • Korea Badminton Association (대한배드민턴협회, KBA)
  • Korean Rowing Association (대한조정협회, KRA)
  • Korea Roller Sports Federation (대한롤러연맹, KRSF)
  • Korean Yachting Association (대한요트협회, KYA)
  • Korea Bowling Congress (대한볼링협회, KBC)
  • Korea Archery Association (대한양궁협회, KAA)
  • Korean Canoe Federation (대한카누연맹, KCF)
  • Korea Golf Association (대한골프협회, KGA)
  • Korea Modern Pentathlon Federation (대한근대5종연맹, KMPF)
  • Korea Water Ski Association (대한수상스키협회, KWSA)
  • Korean Alpine Federation (대한산악연맹, KAF)
  • Korea Bodybuilding Federation (대한보디빌딩협회, KBF)
  • Korea Sepaktakraw Association (대한세팍타크로협회, KSA)
  • Korea Underwater Association (대한수중.핀수영협회, KUA)
  • Korea Wushu Association (대한우슈쿵푸협회, KWA)
  • Korea Softball Federation (대한소프트볼협회, KSF)
  • Korea Bobsleigh Skeleton Federation (대한봅 슬레이켈레톤연맹, KBSF)
  • Korean Curling Federation (대한컬링연맹, KCF)
  • Korea Triathlon Federation (대한트라이애슬론연맹, KTF)
  • Korea Biathlon Union (대한바이애슬론연맹, KBU)
  • Korea Squash Federation (대한스쿼시연맹, KSF)
  • Korea Billiard Federation (대한당구연맹, KBF)
  • Korea Taekkyon Association (대한택견연맹, KTA)
  • Korea Karate-do Federation (대한공수도연맹, KKF)
  • Korean Federation of Dancesport (대한댄스스포츠경기연맹, KFD)
  • Korea Orienteering Federation (대한오리엔티어링연맹, KOF)
  • Korea Luge Federation (대한루지연맹, KLF)
  • Korea Amateur Baduk Association (대한바둑협회, KABA)
  • Korea Kabaddi Association (대한카바디협회, KKA)
  • Korea Racquetball Federation (대한라켓볼협회, KRF)
  • Korea Association of Kickboxing Organization (대한킥복싱협회, KAKO)
  • Korea Cricket Association (대한크리켓협회, KCA)

>judo Japanese-originated Judo terms -- hantei, ippon, koka, wazaari, yusei -- are acceptable as these terms form part of the official terminology determined by the International Judo Federation and are used in official results at international events.

>manager, general manager, coach Lowercase before names: Suwon Bluewings coach Cha Bum-keun

>Olympic Games Also use the Olympics, the Games, the Summer Games, the Winter Olympics. Avoid Olympiad because it actually means the four-year period between each sports event.
Events for Summer Olympics
Aquatics (Swimming, Syn. Swimming, Diving, Water-polo)
Beach Volleyball
Canoe/Kayak (Flatwater, Slalom)
Cycling (Track, Road, Mountain Bike, BMX)
Equestrian (Jumping, Dressage, Event)
Gymnastics (Artistic, Trampoline, Rhythmic)
Modern Pentathlon
Table Tennis
Wrestling (Greco-Roman, Freestyle)
Events for Winter Olympics
Alpine skiing
Nordic skiing
Speed skating
Figure skating
Ice hockey

In sports results, the names of countries competing in a team competition, i.e., the United States, South Korea, North Korea, should be spelled out.
But the use of abbreviations is acceptable to indicate the nationality of athletes.
Example: James, U.S., Kim, S. Korea, Pak, N. Korea ....
Use periods after number of rank rather than parentheses, for sake of consistency, e.g.
1. South Korea
2. United States
3. Finland
1) South Korea
2) United States
3) Finland

Figures smaller than 1 are followed by the word point. Otherwise, use points, e.g.
0.57 point, 2.22 points
When describing fractions of a point in time or distance, place a 0 in front of the decimal point, e.g. 0.11 point not .11 point
Avoid complex constructions such as three-1,000ths of a point. Instead, use 0.003 point.
Use the following construction for tennis, handball, volleyball results: Team A def. Team B 15-3.15-10.15-1.
The use of def. is preferred to beat, which bears strong physical connotations.
For basketball use: Team A 60, Team B 62. For baseball, rugby and football use: Team A 4, TEAM B 3.

>taekwondo The traditional Korean martial art, practiced by some 60 million people around the world, has been an Olympic event since 2000. Do not capitalize it unless it is part of an organization linked to the sport: North Korean taekwondo players are set to hold demonstrations. the Korea Taekwondo Association, the Seoul-based World Taekwondo Federation.

ATP Tennis Masters Cup Results
HOUSTON, Dec. 15 (Yonhap) -- Results Sunday from the $4.45 million ATP Masters Cup at the Westside
Tennis Club (seedings in parentheses):
Singles = Championship =
Lee Hyung-taik (16), South Korea, def. Andre Agassi (5), United States, 6-3, 3-6, 6-0, 4-6, 7-6 < 7-2 >.

* < > refers to tiebreak game scores

World Cup men's volleyball- Day 7 results
OKAYAMA, Japan, Nov. 24 (Yonhap) -- Results Monday from the World Cup men's volleyball tournament.
Top three teams will qualify for the Athens Olympic Games next year:
Brazil def. Canada 3-0 (25-13, 25-17, 25-14)
United States def. South Korea 3-0 (25-20, 25-20, 25-17)

>track and field Refer to a track and field competitor as a runner, hurdler, hammer thrower, shot putter, high jumper, javelin thrower, etc. (Do not use marathoner)
In results, the units are spelled out in the winning time and distance of every event listed:
Women's 100 meters
1. Susanithika Jayasinghe Manannalage, Sri Lanka 11.15 seconds
2. Lyubov Perepolova, Uzbekistan 11.38
3 Qin Wangping, China 11.51
1. Gu Yuan, China 70.49 meters
2. Liu Yinghui, China 66.73
3. Aya Masumi, Japan 62.18


APPENDIX: South Korea

South Korean government agencies

South Korea has 50 government offices including 17 ministries as of March 2013.

대통령 President

대통령비서실 Office of the President

국가안보실 Office of the Chief of National Security

대통령경호실 Presidential Security Service

감사원 Board of Audit and Inspection

국가정보원 National Intelligence Service

방송통신위원회 Broadcasting and Communications Commission

국가인권위원회 National Human Rights Commission of Korea

국무총리 Prime Minister

국무조정실 Office for Government Policy Coordination

국무총리비서실 Prime Minister’s Secretariat

법제처: Ministry of Government Legislation

국가보훈처: Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs

식품의약품안전처 Ministry of Food and Drug Safety

공정거래위원회 Fair Trade Commission

금융위원회 Financial Services Commission

국민권익위원회 Civil Rights Commission

원자력안전위원회 Nuclear Safety and Security Commission

기획재정부 Ministry of Strategy and Finance

국세청 National Tax Service

통계청 Statistics Korea

조달청 Public Procurement Service

관세청 Korea Customs Service

미래창조과학부 Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning

교육부 Ministry of Education

외교부 Ministry of Foreign Affairs

통일부 Ministry of Unification

법무부 Ministry of Justice

검찰청 Supreme Prosecutors Office

국방부 Ministry of National Defense

병무청 Military Manpower Administration

방위사업청 Defense Acquisition Program Administration

안전행정부 Ministry of Security and Public Administration

경찰청 National Police Agency

소방방재청 National Emergency Management Agency

문화체육관광부 Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism

문화재청 Cultural Heritage Administration

농림축산식품부 Ministry for Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

농촌진흥청 Rural Development Administration

산림청 Korea Forest Service

산업통상자원부 Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy

중소기업청 Small and Medium Business Administration

특허청 Korean Intellectual Property Office

보건복지부 Ministry for Health and Welfare

환경부 Ministry of Environment

기상청 Korea Meteorological Administration

고용노동부 Ministry of Employment and Labor

여성가족부 Ministry of Gender Equality and Family

국토교통부 Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport

행정중심복합도시건설청 Multifunctional Administrative City Construction Agency

해양수산부 Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries

해양경찰청 Korea Coast Guard

대통령실장 Chief of Staff

제1부속비서관 Personal Secretary I to the President

제2부속비서관 Personal Secretary II to the President

총무비서관 Secretary to the President for Administrative Affairs

인사위원회위원장 Chairperson of the Presidential Committee for Personal Affairs

인사위원회비서관 Secretary to the President for Personnel Affairs

의전비서관 Protocol Secretary to the President

연설•기록비서관 Secretary to the President for Speeches and Records

국정기획수석 Senior Secretary to the President for State Affairs Planning

정무수석 Senior Secretary to the President for Political Affairs

민정수석 Senior Secretary to the President for Civil Affairs

홍보수석 Senior Secretary to the President for Public Relations

경제수석 Senior Secretary to the President for Economic Affairs

미래전략수석 Senior Secretary to the President for Future Strategy

교육문화수석 Senior Secretary to the President for Education and Culture

고용복지수석 Senior Secretary to the President for Employment and Welfare

외교안보수석 Senior Secretary to the President for Foreign Affairs and National Security

국가안보실장 Chief of National Security

South Korean political parties

새누리당 Saenuri Party

원내대표 floor leader

사무총장 secretary general

정책위장 chief policymaker

민주당 Democratic Party

통합진보당 United Progressive Party

진보정의당 Progressive Justice Party

South Korean public companies

대한무역투자진흥공사 Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency (
대한석탄공사 Korea Coal Corporation (
부산항만공사 Busan Port Authority (
에너지관리공단 Korea Energy Management Corporation (
여수광양항만공사 Yeosu Gwangyang Port Authority (
예금보험공사 Korea Deposit Insurance Corporation (
인천국제공항공사 Incheon International Airport Corporation (
인천항만공사 Incheon Port Authority (
전력거래소 Korea Power Exchange (
제주국제자유도시개발센터 Jeju Free International City Development Center (
한국가스공사 Korea Gas Corporation (
한국감정원 Korea Appraisal Board (
한국공항공사 Korea Airport Corporation (
한국관광공사 Korea Tourism Organization (
한국광물자원공사 Korea Resources Corporation (
한국남동발전 Korea South East Power Corporation (
한국남부발전 Korea Southern Power Corporation (
한국도로공사 Korea Expressway Corporation (
한국동서발전 Korea East-West Power Corporation (
한국마사회 Korea Racing Authority (
한국무역보험공사 Korea Trade Insurance Corporation (
한국방송광고진흥공사 Korea Broadcast Advertising Corporation (
한국서부발전 Korea Western Power Corporation (
한국수력원자력 Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Corporation (
한국수자원공사 Korea Water Resources Corporation (
한국석유공사 Korea National Oil Corporation (
한국자산관리공사 Korea Asset Management Corporation (
한국전력공사 Korea Electric Power Corporation (
한국정책금융공사 Korea Finance Corporation (
한국조폐공사 Korea Minting, Security Printing & ID Card Operating Corp (
한국지역난방공사 Korea District Heating Corporation (
대한주택보증 Korea Housing Gurantee Corporation (
한국주택금융공사 Korea Housing Finance Corporation (
한국중부발전 Korea Midland Power Corporation (
한국철도공사 Korea Railroad (
한국토지주택공사 Korea Land & Housing Corporation (

South Korean financial bodies

경찰공제회 Police Mutual Aid Association (
국제금융센터 Korea Center for International Finance (
금융감독원 Financial Supervisory Service (
금융위원회 Financial Services Commission (
금융투자협회 Korea Financial Investment Association (
생명보험협회 Korea Life Insurance Association (
손해보험협회 General Insurance Association of Korea (
여신금융협회 Credit Finance Association (
저축은행중앙회 Korea Federation of Savings Bank (
전국은행연합회 Korea Federation of Banks (
코스닥 협회 KOSDAQ Listed Companies Association (
한국거래소 Korea Exchange (
한국상장사협의회 Korea Listed Companies Association (
한국예탁결제원 Korea Securities Depository (
한국화재보험협회 Korea Fire Protection Association (
화재보험협회 Korea Fire Protection Association (

Industrial bodies in South Korea

개성공업지구지원재단Kaesong Industrial District Management Committee (
대한간호협회 Korean Nurses Association (
대한건설협회 Construction Association of Korea (
대한물리치료사협회 Korean Physical Therapy Association (
대한방사선사협회 Korean Radiological Technologists Association (
대한변호사협회 Korean Bar Association (
대한산업안전협회 Korea Industrial Safety Association (
대한상공회의소 Korea Chamber of Commerce & Industry (
대한석유협회 Korea Petroleum Association (
대한설비건설협회 Korea Mech, Const, Contractors Association (
대한안경사협회 Korean Optometric Association (
대한양계협회 Korea Poultry Association (
대한영양사협회 Korean Dietetic Association (
대한전기협회 Korea Electric Association (
대한치과위생사협회 Korean Dental Hygienists Association (
대한측량협회 Korean Association of Surveying & Mapping (
대한출판문화협회 Korean Publishers Association (
대한한돈협회 Korea Pork Producers Association (
대한한의사협회 Association of Korean Medicine(
대한한약협회 Korea Oriental Drug Association (
벤처기업협회 Korea Venture Business Association (
주한뉴질랜드상공회의소 New Zealand Chamber of Commerce in Korea (
주한독일상공회의소 Korea-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry (
주한미국상공회의소 American Chamber of Commerce in Korea (
주한유럽상공회의소 European Chamber of Commerce in Korea (
주한영국상공회의소 British Chamber of Commerce in Korea (
주한호주상공회의소 Australian Chamber of Commerce in Korea (
중소기업중앙회 Korea Federation of Small and Medium Business (
전국경제인연합회 Federation of Korean Industries (
전국택시운송사업조합연합회 Korea National Joint Conference of Taxi Association (http://www.
한국감정원 Korea Appraisal Board (
한국건설감리협회 Korea Construction Consulting Engineers Association (
한국검정교과서 Korea Authorized and Approved Textbook (
한국게임산업협회 Korea Association of Game Industry (
한국게임개발자협회 Korea Game Developers Association (
한국경영자총협회 Korea Employers Federation (
한국경영정보학회 Korea Society of Management Information System (
한국계육협회 Korea Chicken Council (
한국기계산업진흥회 Korea Association of Machinery Industry (
한국광고협회 Korea Federation of Advertising Associations (
한국관광협회중앙회 Korea Tourism Association (
한국낙농육우협회 Korea Dairy & Beef Farmers Association (
한국능률협회 Korea Management Association (
한국도시가스협회 Korea City Gas Association (
한독상공회의소 Korean-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry (
한국디스플레이산업협회 Korea Display Industry Association (
한국무역협회 Korea International Trade Association (
한국반도체산업협회 Korea Semiconductor Industry Association (
한국비철금속협회 Korea Nonferrous Metal Association (
한국산업조직학회 Korea Academic Society of Industrial Organization (
한국석유화학협회 Korea Petrochemical Industry Association (
한국섬유산업연합회 Korea Federation of Textile Industries (
한국생산성본부 Korea Productivity Center (
한국석유유통협회 Korea Oil Association (
한국선주협회 Korea Shipowners’ Association (
한국식품산업협회 Korea Food Information Association (
한국소프트웨어산업협회 Korea Software Industry Association (
한국수입업협회 Korea Importers Association (
한국엔지니어링협회 Korea Engineering & Consulting Association (
한국음악저작권협회 Korea Music Copyright Association (
한국의류산업협회 Korea Apparel Industry Association (
한국유가공협회 Korea Dairy Industries Association (
한국육가공협회 Korea Meat Industries Association (
한국외국기업협회 Korea Foreign Company Association (
한국이러닝산업협회 Korea E-learning Industry Association (
한국인사조직학회 Korean Academy of Management (
한국자동차공업협회 Korea Automobile Manufacturers Association (
한국전기공사협회 Korea Electrical Construction Association (
한국전력기술인협회 Korea Electric Engineers Association (
한국전자공업협동조합 Korea Electric Industries Cooperative (
한국전지산업협회 Korea Battery Industry Association (
한국정보통신기술협회 Telecommunication Technology Association (
한국주류산업협회 Korea Alcohol Liquor Industry Association (
한국주택협회 Korea Housing Association (
한국조선협회 Korean Shipbuilders’ Association (
한국지역냉난방협회 Korea District Heating & Cooling Association (
한국철강협회 Korea Iron & Steel Association (
한국캐릭터협회 Korea Character Business Association (
한국태양광산업협회 Korea Photovoltaic Industry Association (
한국통계진흥원 Korea Statistics Promotion Institute (
한국통계학회 Korean Statistical Society (
한국티타늄협회 Korea Titanium Association (
한국표준협회 Korean Standards Association (
한국프렌차이즈협회 Korea Franchise Association (
한국항공진흥협회 Korea Civil Aviation Development Association (
한국항공우주산업진흥협회 Korea Aerospace Industries Association (
한국화학물질관리협회 Korea Chemicals Management Association (
환경보전협회 Korea Environmental Preservation Association (
해외건설협회 International Contractors Association of Korea (

South Korean think tanks

과학기술정책연구원 Science and Technology and Policy Institute (
국가미래연구원 Institute for the Future of State (http://
국토연구원 Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements (
대외경제정책연구원 Korea Institute for International Economic Policy (
동아시아연구원 East Asia Institute (http://
민주정책연구원 Institute for Democracy and Policies (http://
산업연구원 Korea Institute for Industrial Economics & Trade (
삼성경제연구원 Samsung Economic Research Institute (
서울연구원 Seoul Institute (
아산정책연구원 Asan Institute of Policy Studies (
에너지경제연구원 Korea Energy Economics Institute (
여의도연구소 Yoido Institute (
정보통신정책연구원 Korea Information Society Development Institute (
중소기업연구원 Korea Small Business Institute (
포스코경영연구소 POSCO Research Institute (
한국개발연구원 Korea Development Institute (
한국건설산업연구원 Construction Economy Research Institute of Korea (
한국경제연구원 Korea Economic Research Institute (
한국금융연구원 Korea Institute of Finance (
한국교통연구원 Korea Transport Institute (
한국노동연구원 Korea Labor Institute (
한국농촌경제연구원 Korea Rural Economic Institute (
한국보건사회연구원 Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs (
한국선진화포럼 Korea Forum for Progress (http://
한국소비자원 Korea Consumer Agency (
한국여성정책연구원 Korea Women’s Development Institute (
한국조세연구원 Korea Institute of Public Finance (
현대경제연구원 Hyundai Research Institute (
LG경제연구원 LG Economic Research Institute (

South Koran civic groups

경제개혁연대 Solidarity for Economic Reform (
경제정의실천시민연합 Citizens’ Coalition for Economic Justice (
공공운수연맹 Korea Public & Social Transportation Workers' Union (
국민행동본부 National Action Campaign for Freedom and Democracy in Korea (
금속노조 Korean Metal Worker's Union (
기독시민연대 Christian Citizen Union (
녹색소비자연대전국협의회 Green Consumer Network in Korea (
녹색연합 Green Korea Union (
대한불교조계종 Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism (
독도해양연구센터 Korea Dokdo & Marine Territory Research Center (
동물보호시민단체 Korea Animal Rights Advocates(
동물사랑실천협회 Coexistence of Animal Rights on Earth (
민족문제연구소 Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities (
민주언론시민연합 Citizen’s Coalition for Democratic Media (
바른사회시민회의 Citizens United for Better Society (
북한인권시민연합 Citizens Alliance for North Korean Human Rights (
아름다운 재단 The Beautiful Foundation (
우리민족서로돕기운동 Korean Sharing Movement (
전국공무원노조 Korean Government Employee’s Union (
전국교직원노동조합 Korea Teachers and Education Workers Union (
전국민주노동조합총연맹 Korea Confederation of Trade Unions (
조국통일범민족연합 Pan-Korean Alliance for Reunification (
참여연대 People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (
천주교서울대교구교구청 Archdiocese of Seoul (
한국 YWCA 연합회 National Young Women's Christian Association of Korea (
한국YMCA 전국연맹 National Council of the Young Men's Christian Associations of Korea (
한국YMCA 전국연맹 National YWCA of Korea (
한국기독교총연합회 The Christian Council of Korea (
한국여성단체연합 Korean Women’s Association United (
환경운동연합 Korean Federation for Environmental Movement (
한국자유총연맹 Korea Freedom Federation (
한국진보연대 Korea Alliance of Progressive Movements (

APPENDIX: Distance to Seoul (in kilometers)

Use the information below when identifying the locations of South Korean major cities in relation to the capital of Seoul.

Andong 268     Ansan 42     Anseong 77     Anyang 23

Boeun 180     Bonghwa 244     Boseong 397     Buan280     Busan453     Buyeo 195

Changryeong 347     Changwon 398     Cheongju 137     Cheonan 92     Cheorwon 88     Chuncheon 85     Cheongsong 322     Chungmu 488     Chungju 147

Danyang 193     Daejeon 164     Dongducheon 40     Donghae 279     Damyang 344     Dangjin 123     Daegu 302     Daecheon 190

Euijeongbu 23     Euiryeong 396     Euiseong 334     Eumseong 131

Gangneung 237     Ganseong 218     Gapyeong60     Gaya 392     Geochang 297     Geumchon 34     Galmal 77     Gimcheon 234     Gimje 262     Gimhae 449     Gimpo 29     Ganghwa 58     Gangjin 412     Geumsan 198     Gochang 296     Goheung473     Gokseong 408     Gongju 162     Goryeong 340     Goseong 466     Guneui 309     Gunsan274     Gurye422     Gwacheon 18     Gwangju 329     Gwangyang 423     Gwesan 157     Gyeongju 371     Gyeongsan 331     Gumi 261     Guri 15

Hadong 473     Haenam 423     Hampyeong 383     Hamyang 330     Hamyeol 223     Hapcheon 354     Hoengseong 137     Hongcheon 102     Hongseong 157     Hwacheon 118     Hwasun 343     Hwayang 357

Icheon 80     Imsil300     Incheon 40     Inje 165     Iri 250

Jangheung 394     Jangseong 308     Jangsu 318     Jecheon 168     Jeongseon 214     Jeonju 243     Jinan 283     Jincheon 91     Jin Island 472     Jinhae 410     Jinju 434     Jeomchon 215     Jochiwon 137

Masan 388     Migeum 17     Milyang 386     Mokpo 410     Muan 385     Muju 241

Naju 355     Namhae 495     Namwon 389     Nonsan 213

Okcheon 174     Onyang 107     Osan 55

Pocheon 46     Pohang 374     Pyeongchang 182     Pyeongtaek 70

Sacheon 437     Samcheok 290     Samcheonpo 454     Sancheong 362     Sangju 270     Seocheon 235     Seongju (North Gyeongsang Province) 296     Seongju (North Jeolla Province) 405     Seonsan 277     Seosan 151     Songtan 65     Sokcho 213     Sunchang 364     Suncheon 415     Suwon 46

Taebaek 271

Uljin 330     UIsan 414

Waegwan 282     Wan Island 474     Wonju 132     Wondang 20

Yangsan 420     Yangyang 215     Yeoncheon 62     Yanggu 175     Yangpyeong 55     Yecheon 254     Yeocheon 451     Yeoju 105     Yeongam 384     Yeongdong 214     Yeongyang 328     Yeongcheon 344     Yeongdeok 349     Yeonggwang 322     Yeongju 229     Yeongwol 204     Yeosu 455     Yesan 134     Yongin 49

APPENDIX: Armed Forces Ranks


Ranks Abbreviations
General Gen. 대장
Lieutenant General Lt. Gen. 중장
Major General Maj. Gen. 소장
Brigadier General Brig. Gen. 준장
Colonel Col. 대령
Lieutenant Colonel Lt. Col. 중령
Major Maj. 소령
Captain Capt. 대위
First Lieutenant 1st Lt. 중위
Second Lieutenant 2nd Lt. 소위
Warrant Officer WO 준위
Command Sergeant Major Sgt. Maj. 원사
Master Sergeant Msg. 상사
Sergeant First Class Sfc. 중사
Staff Sergeant Ssg. 하사
Sergeant Sgt. 병장
Corporal Cpl. 상병
Private First Class Pfc. 일병
Private Pvt. 이병


Ranks Abbreviations
Admiral Adm. 대장
vice Admiral V. Adm. 중장
Rear Admiral Upper Half R. Adm. 소장
Rear Admiral Lower Half R. Adm. 준장
Captain Capt. 대령
Commander Cdr. 중령
Lieutenant Commander Lt. Cdr. 소령
Lieutenant Lt. 대위
Lieutenant Junior Grade Lt. Jg. 중위
Ensign Ens. 소위
Warrant Officer WO 준위
Master Chief Petty Office M. Cpo. 원사
Senior Chief Petty Officer S. Cpo. 상사
Chief Petty Officer Cpo. 중사
Petty Officer First Class PO1.C. 하사
Petty Officer Second Class PO2.C 병장
Petty Officer Third Class PO3.C. 상병
Seaman Seaman 일병
Seaman Apprentice SA. 이병

Air Force

Ranks Abbreviations
General Gen. 대장
Lieutenant General Lt. Gen. 중장
Major General Maj. Gen. 소장
Brigadier General Brig. Gen. 준장
Colonel Col. 대령
Lieutenant Colonel Lt. Col. 중령
Major Maj. 소령
Captain Capt. 대위
First Lieutenant 1st Lt. 중위
Second Lieutenant 2nd Lt. 소위
Warrant Office WO 준위
Chief Master Sergeant CM. Sgt. 원사
Senior Master Sergeant SM. Sgt. 상사
Master Sergeant MSgt. 중사
Technical Sergeant TSgt. 하사
Staff Sergeant Ssgt. 병장
Senior Airman SrA 상병
Airman First Class A1.C 일병
Airman Armn 이병

Marine Corps

Ranks Abbreviations
General Gen. 대장
Lieutenant General Lt. Gen. 중장
Major General Maj. Gen. 소장
Brigadier General Brig. Gen. 준장
Colonel Col. 대령
Lieutenant Colonel Lt. Col. 중령
Major Maj. 소령
Captain Capt. 대위
First Lieutenant 1st Lt. 중위
Second Lieutenant 2nd Lt. 소위
Warrant Officer WO 준위
Master Gunnery Sergeant Mgy.Sgt. 원사
Master Sergeant M. Sgt. 상사
Gunnery Sergeant Gy. Sgt. 중사
Staff Sergeant S. Sgt. 하사
Sergeant Sgt. 병장
Corporal Cpl. 상병
Lance Corporal L. Cpl. 일병
Private First Class Pfc. 이병

APPENDIX: North Korea

North Korea's Key Institutions

조선노동당 Workers' Party of Korea (WPK)
- 조선노동당 중앙위원회 Central Committee of the WPK
- 조선노동당 중앙위 정치국 Political Bureau of the WPK Central Committee
- 조선노동당 중앙위 정치국 상무위원회 Political Bureau Presidium of the WPK Central Committee
- 조선노동당 중앙위 비서국 Secretariat of the WPK Central Committee
- 조선노동당 중앙위 검열위원회 Control Committee of the WPK Central Committee
- 조선노동당 중앙위 통일전선부 United Front Department of the WPK Central Committee
- 조선노동당 중앙위 선전선동부 Information and Instruction Department of the WPK Central Committee
- 조선노동당 중앙군사위원회 Central Military Commission of the WPK
- 조선노동당 중앙검사위원회 Central Auditing Commission of the WPK
- 국가체육지도위원회 State Physical Culture and Sports Guidance Commission

국방위원회 National Defense Commission (NDC)
국가안전보위부 State Security Ministry
인민무력부 Ministry of the People's Armed Forces
인민보안부 Ministry of People's Security

최고인민회의 Supreme People's Assembly (SPA)
- 최고인민회의 상임위원회 Presidium of the SPA
- 최고인민회의 법제위원회 Legislation Committee of the SPA
- 최고인민회의 예산위원회 Budget Committee of the SPA
- 최고재판소 Supreme Court
- 최고검찰소 Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office

내각 the Cabinet
North Korea’s Cabinet has 42 offices including, eight commissions, 30 ministries and the central bank as of April, 2013.

- 교육위원회 Education Commission
- 국가가격제정위원회 State Price Assessment Commission
- 국가계획위원회 State Planning Commission
- 국가과학기술위원회 State Science Technology Commission
- 국가검열위원회 State Inspection Commission
- 국가품질감독위원회 State Quality Supervision Commission
- 수도건설위원회 Capital City Construction Commission
- 합영투자위원회 Joint Venture Investment Commission
- 건설건재공업성 Ministry of Construction and Building-Material Industries
- 경공업성 Ministry of Light Industry
- 국가건설감독성 Ministry of State Construction Control
- 국가자원개발성 Ministry of State Resources Development
- 국토환경보호성 Ministry of Land and Environment Preservation
- 금속공업성 Ministry of Metal and Machine-Building Industries
- 기계공업성 Ministry of Machine-building Industry
- 노동성 Ministry of Labor
- 농업성 Ministry of Agriculture
- 도시경영성 Ministry of City Management
- 무역성 Ministry of Foreign Trade
- 문화성 Ministry of Culture
- 보건성 Ministry of Public Heath
- 상업성 Ministry of Commerce
- 석탄공업성 Ministry of Coal Industry
- 수매양정성 Ministry of Procurement and Food Administration
- 수산성 Ministry of Fisheries
- 식료일용공업성 Ministry of Foodstuff and Daily Necessities Industry
- 외무성 Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- 원유공업성 Ministry of Crude Oil Industry
- 전자공업성 Ministry of Electronics Industry
- 육해운성 Ministry of Land and Marine Transport
- 임업성 Ministry of Forestry
- 재정성 Ministry of Finance
- 전력공업성 Ministry of Power Industry
- 채취공업성 Ministry of Extractive Industries
- 철도성 Ministry of Railways
- 체신성 Ministry of Post and Telecommunications
- 체육성 Ministry of Physical Culture and Sports
- 화학공업성 Ministry of Chemical Industry
- 내각사무국 Secretariat of the Cabinet
- 중앙통계국 Central Statistic Bureau
- 국가과학원 State Academy of Sciences
- 조선중앙은행 Central Bank of Korea
- 국가체육지도위원회 Commission of Physical Culture and Sports Guidance
- 원자력총국 General Department of Atomic Energy

조선인민군 the Korean People's Army (KPA)
- 조선인민군 총정치국 General Political Bureau of the KPA
- 조선인민군 총참모부 General Staff of the KPA
- 조선인민군 총정찰국 General Reconnaissance Bureau of the KPA
- 조선인민군 판문점대표부 Representative Office of the KPA at Panmunjom
- 인민경비대 Korean People's Internal Forces
- 노농적위대 Worker-Peasant Red Guard
- 붉은청년근위대 Young Red Guard

North Korea’s Military Ranks

원수급 Special general officer ranks

대원수 Grand Marshal

공화국원수 Marshal of the DPRK

인민군원수 Marshal of the KPA

차수 Vice Marshal

장령급 (general officer ranks)

대장 General

상장 Colonel General (on par with South Korea’s Lieutenant General)

중장 Lieutenant General (on par with South Korea’s Major General)

소장 Major General (on par with South Korea’s Brigadier General)

좌관급 Field-grade officer ranks

대좌 Senior Colonel

상좌 Colonel

중좌 Lieutenant Colonel

소좌 Major

위관급 Company-grade officer ranks

대위 Captain

상위 First Lieutenant

중위 Second Lieutenant

소위 Third Lieutenant

부사관 Non-commissioned officer ranks

특무상사 Warrant Officer

상사 Sergeant First Class

중사 Staff Sergeant

하사 Sergeant

병 Enlisted ranks

상급병사 Lance Sergeant

중급병사 Corporal

하급병사 Lance Corporal

전사 Private

Major Social Organizations

- 조국평화통일위원회 the Committee for the Peaceful Reunification of Korea
- 조국통일민주주의전선 the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Fatherland
- 조국통일범민족연합 (범민련) the National Alliance for the Country's Reunification
- 조국통일범민족청년동맹연합 (범청련) the National Alliance of Youth and Students for the Country's Reunification
- 아시아태평양평화위원회 the Asia-Pacific Peace Committee
- 대외문화연락위원회 Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries
- 민족화해협력위원회 National Reconciliation Council
- 큰물피해대책위원회 Flood Damage Measure Committee
- 종군위안부 및 태평양전쟁피해자보상대책위원회 Measure Committee on Compensation for Comfort Women for Army and Victims of Pacific War
- 사회민주당 Social Democratic Party
- 천도교청우당 Chondoist Chongu Party
- 김일성사회주의청년동맹 League of Kirnilsung Socialist Working Youth
- 농업근로자동맹 Union of Agricultural Working People
- 민주여성동맹 Democratic Women's Union
- 문학예술총동맹 General Federation of Unions of Literature and Arts of Korea
- 과학기술총연맹 General Federation of Science and Technology
- 공업가술총연맹 General Federation of Industrial Technology
- 외교협회 Foreign Affairs Association
- 적십자회 Red Cross Society
- 변호사협회 Bar Association
- 민주법률가협회 Democratic Lawyers Association
- 조선직업총동맹 General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea
- 종교인협의회 Religionists Council
- 크리스트교연맹 Christians Federation
- 천주교인협회 Roman Catholics Association
- 불교도연맹 Buddhists Federation
- 천도교중앙지도위원회 Chondoists Association

Major Mass Media

- 노동신문 Rodong Sinmun, an organ of the Workers’ Party of Korea
- 청년전위 Chongnyonjonwi, a newspaper of the North’s youth guard militia
- 만수대텔레비전방송 Mansudae Television Station
- 민주조선 Minju Joson, an organ of the SPA Presidium and the Cabinet
- 우리민족끼리 Uriminzokkiri, North Korea’s main Internet-based media. The Korean phrase means 'only by Koreans ourselves'
- 구국의소리(방송) Voice of National Salvation
- 조선인민군 Josoninmingun, an organ of North Korea’s military .
- 조선신보 Choson Sinbo, an organ of the pro-Pyongyang General Association of Korean Residents in Japan (Chongryon)
- 조선중앙통신 Korean Central News Agency (KCNA)
- 조선중앙방송 Korean Central Broadcasting Station (KCBS)
- 조선중앙텔레비전방송 Korean Central TV Broadcasting Station (KCBS TV)
- 평양방송 Radio Pyongyang

Major Economic Organizations

- 고려항공 Air Koryo
- 금강산관광총회사 Mt. Kumgang General Tourism Co.
- 국제무역촉진위원회 Committee for the Promotion of International Trade
- 대외경제협력추진위원회 Committee for the Promotion of External Economic Cooperation
- 삼천리총회사 Samcholli General Corp.
- 조선국제여행사 Korea International Tourist Bureau
- 조선국제합영총회사 Korea International General Joint Venture Co.
- 조선대성은행 Korea Daesong Bank
- 조선무역은행 Foreign Trade Bank of Korea
- 조선상업회의소 DPRK Commercial Office
- 조선합영은행 Korea Joint Venture Bank

Major Facilities

- 금수산태양궁전 Kumsusan Palace of the Sun
- 금수산의사당 Kumsusan Assembly Hall
- 만수대의사당 Mansudae Assembly Hall
- 김일성광장 Kimilsung Square
- 백화원초대소 Paekhwawon State Guesthouse
- 만경대 Mangyongdae, the birthplace of North Korea’s founder Kim Il-sung
- 만경대학생소년궁전 Mangyongdae School Children's Palace
- 만수대예술극장 Mansudae Art Theater
- 모란봉극장 Moranbong Theatre
- 5.1 경기장 May Day Stadium
- 2.18문화회관 February 8 House of Culture
- 인민극단 People’s Theatrical Company
- 인민대학습당 Grand People's Study House
- 인민문화궁전 People's Palace of Culture
- 평양대극장 Pyongyang Grand Theatre
- 주체사상탑 Tower of Juche Idea
- 천리마문화회관 Chollima House of Culture
- 평양학생소년궁전 Pyongyang School Children's Palace

Major Schools

- 김일성종합대학 Kimilsung University
- 김책공업종합대학 Kimchaek Univ. of Technology
- 인민경제대학 University of National Economy
- 인민보안성정치대학 Political University (under People’s Security Ministry)
- 평양외국어대학 Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies
- 평양연극영화대학 Pyongyang University of Dramaturgy and Cinematics
- 평양음악무용대학 Pyongyang University of Music and Dance

Useful Expressions

- 주체사상 juche idea, North Korea’s guiding philosophy
- 강성대국 kangsong taeguk, a military, economic power or a great, prosperous and powerful nation
- 고려민주연방공화국 Democratic Confederal Republic of Koryo
- 인간중심의 우리식 사회주의 the People-centered Socialism of Our Own Style
- 낮은 단계의 연방제 Low Level of Federation or Lower Stage Federation
- 광폭정치 all-embracing politics, magnanimous politics
- 선군정치 Military-first Politics
- 현지지도 On-site (On-the-spot) Guidance
- 고난의 행군 Arduous March under Trials
- 유훈 teachings left behind by late North Korea’s founder Kim Il-sung
- 태양절(김일성생일) the Day of the Sun
- 광명성절(김정일생일) the Day of the Kwangmyongsong, or the shining star


중국공산당 the Communist Party of China

중국공산당 중앙위원회 The Central Committee

중국공산당 중앙정치국 Political Bureau and its Standing Committee and the General Secretary
중국공산당 중앙정치국 상무위원회 Standing Committee of Political Bureau
중국공산당 중앙정치국 위원 Political Bureau members
중국공산당 중앙정치국 후보위원 Political Bureau alternate members

중앙위원회 서기처 Secretariat of the Central Committee

중국공산당 중앙군사위원회 Central Military Commission

중국공산당 중앙기율검사위원회 Central Commission for Discipline Inspection

Offices affiliated with the Communist Party of China

중국공산당 중앙판공청 General Affairs Office
중국공산당 중앙통일전선공작부 United Front Work Department
중국공산당 중앙정책연구실 Policy Research Office
중국공산당 중앙국가안전영도소조 Security Bureau
중국공산당 중앙조직부 Organization Department
중국공산당 중앙외사공작영도소조 Foreign Affairs Office
중국공산당 중앙문헌연구실 Party Literature Research Committee
중국공산당 중앙사회치안종합관리위원회 Guards Bureau
중국공산당 중앙선전부 Publicity Department
중국공산당 중앙당교 Central Party School
중국공산당 중앙대외선전판공실 International Communication Office
중국공산당 중앙기록보관소 Archive Bureau
중국공산당 중앙대외연락부 International Liaison Department
중국공산당 중앙당사연구실 Party History Research Center
중국공산당 중앙대대만공작영도소조 Taiwan Affairs office
인민일보 People’s Daily
정법위원회 Central Political and Legislative Affairs Commission
중앙정신문명건설지도위원회 Central Guidance Commission for Building Spiritual Civilization
중앙조직위원회 State Commission for Public Sector Reform
재경영도소조 Central Leading Group for Financial and Economic Affairs
선전 사상공작영도소조 Central Leading Group for Propaganda and Ideological Work

중국공산당 전국인민대표대회

National People’s Congress (NPC)

전국인민대표대회 상무위원회 Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC)

위원장 Chairman
부위원장 Vice Chairman

국가주석 President of the People's Republic of China
국가부주석 Vice President of People's Republic of China
총서기 Secretary General

중국정치협상회의 Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference

중국국제무역촉진위원회 China Council for Promotion of International Trade
중국국제상회 China Chamber of International Commerce
중국인민은행 People’s Bank of China
중국전국공상업연합회 All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce

Chinese government agencies

국무원 State Council
외교부 Ministry of Foreign Affairs
국방부 Ministry of National Defense
국가발전개혁위원회 National Development and Reform Commission
교육부 Ministry of Education
과학기술부 Ministry of Science and Technology
공업신식화부 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
국가민족사무위원회 State Ethnic Affairs Commission
공안부 Ministry of Public Security
국가안전부 Ministry of State Security
감찰부 Ministry of Supervision
민정부 Ministry of Civil Affairs
사법부 Ministry of Justice
재정부 Ministry of Finance
인력자원사회보장부 Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
국토자원부 Ministry of Land, Natural Resources
환경보호부 Ministry of Environmental Protection
주택도시농촌건설부 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Construction
교통운수부 Ministry of Transport
수리부 Ministry of Water Resources
농업부 Ministry of Agriculture
상무부 Ministry of Commerce
문화부 Ministry of Culture
국가위생계획생육위원회 National Health and Family Planning Commission
인민은행 People’s Bank of China
심계서 National Audit Office

Organizations directly under the State Council

중국관세청 General Administration of Customs
국가세무총국 State Administration of Taxation
국가공상행정관리총국 State Administration for Industry and Commerce
국가품질감독검사검역총국 General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine
국가체육총국 General Administration of Sport
국가안전생산감독관리총국 State Administration of Work Safety
국가탄광안전감찰국 State Administration of Coal Mine Safety
국가식품약품감독관리총국 China Food and Drug Administration
국가통계국 National Bureau of Statistics
국가임업국 State Forestry Administration
국가지적재산권국 State Intellectual Property Office
국가관광국 National Tourism Administration
국가종교사무국 State Administration for Religious Affairs
국무원참사관실 Counselors’ Office of the State Council
국가기관사무관리국 Government Offices Administration of the State Council
국가부패예방국 National Bureau of Corruption Prevention

Chinese provinces and major cities

The four municipalities directly controlled by the central government: 베이징 (北京) Beijing, 텐진 Tianjin (天津), 상하이 Shanghai (上海), 총칭 Chongqing (重慶)

Province Capital
간쑤 (甘肅) Gansu 란저우 (蘭州) Lanzhou
구이저우 (貴州) Guizhou 구이양 (貴陽) Guiyang
광둥 (廣東) Guangdong 광저우 (廣州) Guangzhou
랴오닝 (遼寧) Liaoning 선양 (瀋陽) Shenyang
산시 (山西) Shanxi 타이위안 (太原) Taiyuan
산둥 (山東) Shandong 지난 (濟南) Jinan
쓰촨 (四川) Sichuan 청두 (成都) Chengdu
산시 (陝西) Shaanxi 시안 (西安) Xian
안후이 (安徽) Anhui 허페이 (合肥) Hefei
윈난 (雲南) Yunnan 쿤밍 (昆明) Kunming
장시 (江西) Jiangxi 난창 (南昌) Nanchang
장쑤 (江蘇) Jiangsu 난징 (南京) Nanjing
저장 (浙江) Zhejiang 항저우 (杭州) Hangzhou
지린 (吉林) Jilin 창춘 (長春) Changchun
칭하이 (青海) Qinghai 시닝 (西寧) Xining
푸젠 (福建) Fujian 푸저우 (福州) Fuzhou
하이난 (海南) Hainan 하이커우 (海口) Haikou
허난 (河南) Henan 정저우 (鄭州) Zhengzhou
허베이 (河北) Hebei 스자좡 (石家荘) Shijiazhuang
헤이룽장 (黑龍江) Heilongjiang 하얼빈 (哈爾濱) Harbin
후난 (湖南) Hunan 창사 (長沙) Changsha
후베이 (湖北) Hubei 우한 (武漢) Wuhan

Autonomous regions

광시(廣西)장족자치구 Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
난닝 (南寧) Nanning
네이멍구(內蒙古)자치구 Inner Mongolia autonomous Region
후허호트 (呼和浩特) Huhhot
닝샤 (寧夏)회족자치구 Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
인촨 (銀川) Yinchuan
시짱(西藏)자치구 Tibet Autonomous Region
라사 (拉薩) Lhasa
신장 (新疆) 위구르자치구 Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
우루무치 (烏魯木斉) Urumqi
홍콩(香港)특별행정구 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
마카오(澳門)특별행정구 Macao Special Administrative Region

Other cities

가오슝 (高雄) Gaoxiong
닝보 (寧波) Ningbo
대만 (台湾) Taiwan
산터우 (汕頭) Shantou
쑤저우 (蘇州) Suzhou
시짱 (西藏) Xizang
옌안 (延安) Yanan
옌타이 (烟台) Yantai
완셴 (万縣) Wanxian
원저우 (溫州) Wenzhou
장주 (漳州) Zhangzhou
촨저우 (泉州) Quanzhou
차하르 (察哈爾) Chahar
칭다오 (靑島) Qingdao
타이베이 (台北) Taipei
한커우 (漢口) Hankou
후이저우 (惠州) Huizhou
허톈 (和田) Hotian


샤먼 (廈門島) Xiamen in Fujian Province, southeastern China
진먼다오 (金門島) Kinmen Island, a Taiwan-administered island located just a few kilometers from Xiamen
황허 (黃河) Yellow River
둥팅호 (洞庭湖) Dongting Lake in Hunan Province
펑후다오 (澎湖島) Penghu Island
보하이만 (渤海湾) Bohai Bay
양쯔강 (揚子江) Yangzi River
싼샤(三峽)댐 the Three Georges Dam in Hubei Province that is the world’s largest hydro-electric power station
랴오둥 반도 (遼東半島) Liaodong Peninsula
칭짱(靑藏)철도 the Qinghai-Tibet railway that links Tibet with other parts of China, also known as the world’s highest railway.
국가체육장 (國家體育場) the National Stadium, the main stadium of the Beijing Olympics
중난하이 (中南海)
양쯔강 (揚子江) Zhongnanhai, the Beijing compound where China’s leaders live and work
댜오위타이(釣魚臺) 영빈관 Diaoyutai State Guesthouse
중앙전시대(中央電視臺ㆍCCTV) the government-run China Central Television


수상관저 Prime Minister's Office

내각 Cabinet

대신(장관) minister

부대신 (부장관) senior vice minister

대신정무관 parliamentary secretary

사무차관 vice minister

내각관방 Cabinet Secretariat

정보보안센터 National Information Security Center

국민보호포털사이트 Civil Protection Portal Site

후쿠시마원전사고조사검증위원회 ommittee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations

내각법제국 Cabinet Legislation Bureau

안전보장회의 Security Council of Japan

인사원 National Personnel Authority

내각부 Cabinet Office

궁내청 Imperial Household Agency

공정거래위원회 Fair Trade Commission

국가공안위원회 National Public Safety Commission

경찰청 National Police Agency

금융청 Financial Services Agency

소비자청 Consumer Affairs Agency

식품안전위원회 Food Safety Commission

총무성 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications

공해등조정위원회 Environmental Disputes-Coordination Commission

소방청 Fire and Disaster Management Agency

통계청 Statistics Bureau

부흥청 Reconstruction Agency

방위성 Ministry of Defense

통합막료감부 (합참) Joint Staff

육상자위대 Japan Ground Self-Defense Force

해상자위대 Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force

항공자위대 Japan Air Self-Defense Force

법무성 Ministry of Justice

최고검찰청 Supreme Public Prosecutors Office

사법시험관리위원회 National Bar Examination Commission

공안조사청 Public Security Intelligence Agency

공안심사위원회 Public Security Examination Commission

외무성 Ministry of Foreign Affairs

재무성 Ministry of Finance

국세청 National Tax Agency

문부과학성 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

문화청 Agency for Cultural Affairs

후생노동성 Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare

중앙노동위원회 Central Labor Relations Commission

농수성 Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

임야청 Forestry Agency

수산청 Fisheries Agency

경제산업성 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

자원에너지청 Agency for Natural Resources and Energy

중소기업청 Small and Medium Enterprise Agency

특허청 Patent Office

국토교통성 Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism

일본관광청 Japan Tourism Agency

해상보안청 Japan Coast Guard

해난심판청 Japan Marine Accident Tribunal

일본지리정보국 Geographical Information Authority of Japan

기상청 Japan Meteorological Agency

환경성 Ministry of the Environment

원자력규제위원회 Nuclear Regulation Authority

회계검사원 Board of Audit

일본국회 Diet

중의원 House of Representatives

참의원 House of Councilors

Japanese political parties

자유민주당 Liberal Democratic Party

총무회장 General Council Chairman

정무조사회장 Policy Research Council Chairman

국회대책위원장 Diet Affairs Committee Chairman

세제조사회 Research Commission on the Tax System

민주당 Democratic Party of Japan

공명당 New Komeito

공산당 Japanese Communist Party

사회민주당 Social Democratic Party

생활당 People’s Life Party

우리모두의 당 Your Party

국민신당 People’s New Party

개혁신당 New Renaissance Party

일본유신회 Japan Restoration Party

녹색당 Green Wind Party

Japanese prefectures and major cities

Prefecture Capital
가가와(香川) Kagawa 다카마쓰 (高松) Takamatsu
가고시마(鹿兒島) Kagoshima 가고시마(鹿兒島) Kagoshima
가나가와(神奈川) Kanagawa 요코하마(橫浜) Yokohama
고치(高知) Kochi 고치(高知) Kochi
교토(京都) Kyoto 교토(京都) Kyoto
구마모토(熊本) Kumamoto 구마모토(熊本) Kumamoto
군마(群馬) Gunma 마에바시 (前橋) Maebashi
기후(岐阜) Gifu 기후(岐阜) Gifu
나가노(長野) Nagano 나가노(長野) Nagano
나가사키(長崎) Nagasaki 나가사키(長崎) Nagasaki
나라(奈良) Nara 나라(奈良) Nara
니가타(新潟) Niigata 니가타(新潟) Niigata
도야마(富山) Toyama 도야마(富山) Toyama
도쿄 (東京) Tokyo
도쿠시마(德島) Tokushima 도쿠시마(德島) Tokushima
도치기(板木) Tochigi 우쓰노미야 (宇都宮) Utsunomiya
돗토리(鳥取) Tottori 돗토리(鳥取) Tottori
미야기(宮城) Miyagi 센다이 (仙台) Sendai
미야자키(宮崎) Miyazaki 미야자키(宮崎) Miyazaki
미에(三重) Mie 츠 (津) Tsu
시즈오카(靜岡) Shizuoka 시즈오카(靜岡) Shizuoka
아오모리(靑森) Aomori 아오모리(靑森) Aomori
아이치 (愛知) Aichi 나고야(名古屋) Nagoya
아키타 (秋田) Akita 아키타 (秋田) Akita
야마가타(山形) Yamagata 야마가타(山形) Yamagata
야마구치 (山口) Yamaguchi 야마구치 (山口) Yamaguchi
야마나시(山梨) Yamanashi 코후 (甲府) Kofu
에히메(愛媛) Ehime 마쓰야마 (松山) Matsuyama
오이타(大分) Oita 오이타(大分) Oita
오사카(大阪) Osaka
오카야마(岡山) Okayama 오카야마(岡山) Okayama
오키나와(沖繩) Okinawa 나하 (那覇) Naha
와카야마(和歌山) Wakayama 와카야마(和歌山) Wakayama
이바라키(茨城) Ibaraki 미토 (水戶) Mito
이와테(岩手) Iwate 모리오카 (盛罔) Morioka
이시카와(石川) Ishikawa 가나자와 (金澤) Kanazawa
사가(佐賀) Saga 사가(佐賀) Saga
사이타마(埼玉) Saitama 사이타마(埼玉) Saitama
시가(滋賀) Shiga 오츠(大津) Otsu
시마네(島根) Shimane 마쓰에 (松江) Matsue
지바(千葉) Chiba 지바(千葉) Chiba
홋카이도(北海道) Hokkaido 삿포로(札幌) Sapporo
후쿠이(福井) Fukui 후쿠이(福井) Fukui
후쿠시마(福島) Fukushima 후쿠시마(福島) Fukushima
효고(兵庫) Hyogo 고베 (神戶) Kobe
후쿠오카(福岡) Fukuoka 후쿠오카(福岡) Fukuoka
히로시마(廣島) Hiroshima 히로시마(廣島) Hiroshima

Business organizations

일본경제단체연합회(니혼게이단렌) Nippon Keidanren (Japan Business Federation)
경제동우회 Japan Association of Corporate Executives (Keizai Doyukai)
일본상공회의소 The Japan Chamber of Commerce and Industry (JCCI)
일본해외직업훈련협회 Overseas Vocational Training Association

Major trade union federations

일본노동조합총연합회 Japanese Trade Union Confederation (Rengo)
전국노동조합총연합 National Confederation of Trade Unions (Zenroren)
전국노동조합연락협의회 National Trade Union Council (Zenrokyo)
일본교직원조합 (일교조) Japan Teachers Union (JTU)
전일본교직원조합(전교) All Japan Teachers and Staff Union (Zenkyo)

APPENDIX: Korea’s Era Names

>Old Joseon is founded by Dangun (2333 B.C.).
>Wiman usurps the throne of Jeseon's King Jun (194 B.C.).
>Invasion by the Chinese Han dynasty and establishment of four colonies (108 B.C.) The Three Kingdoms (57 B.C.-A.D. 668)
>Kingdoms of Koguryo (37 B.C.-AD. 668), Baekje (18 B.C.-660 AD.) and Silla (57 B.C.- A.D. 935)
>Establishment of Later Baekje (Hu-Baekje) by Gyeon Hweon (A.D. 892)
>Establishment of Later Koguryo (Taebong-guk) by Gung Ye (A.D. 901)
>Establishment of Goryeo by Wang Geon (A.D. 918)
>Unified Silla (668-918) Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910)
>Establishment of Daehanjeguk, or the Korean Empire, with King Gojong of the Joseon Dynasty becoming its emperor. (1897)
>Japanese Colonial Rule of the Korean Peninsula (1910-1945)
>Republic of Korea (South Korea) is established in the South (August 15, 1948).
>Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) is created in the North (September 9,1948).

>List of South Korean administrations

the Rhee Syng-man government (1948-1960)
the Chang Myon government (1960-1961)
the Park Chung-hee government (1961-1979)
the Choe Kyu-ha government (1979-1980)
the Chun Doo-whan government (1980-88)
the Roh Tae-woo government (1988-1993)
the Kim Young-sam government (1993-1998)
the Kim Dae-jung government (1998-2003)
the Roh Moo-hyun government (2003-2008)
the Lee Myung-bak government (2008-2013)
the Park Geun-hye government (2013- )

APPENDIX: The Romanization of Korean for Yonhap English News

Yonhap News Agency's English news service has adopted the following rules for romanizing Korean based on the New Hangeul Romanization System (NHRS) announced by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in July 2000.

While Yonhap conforms to the NHRS in transcribing most Korean words pertaining to modern South Korea or past historical periods, exceptions will be made for personal, business and North Korean names which adhere to other systems.

1. Basic Principles of NHRS

(1) Romanization is based on standard Korean pronunciation.
(2) Symbols other than Roman letters, e.g. umlauts and accent marks, are avoided to the greatest extent possible.

2. Summary of the Romanization System

(1) Vowels are transcribed as follows:

ㅏㅓㅗㅜㅡㅣㅐㅔㅚㅟ / a eo o u eu i ae oe wi ㅑㅕㅛㅠㅒㅖㅘㅙㅝㅞㅢ / ya yeo yo yu yae ye wa wae wo we ui

Note 1: ㅢ is transcribed as ui, even when pronounced as ㅣ.

Note 2: Long vowels are not reflected in Romanization.

(2) Consonants are transcribed as follows:

ㅏㅓㅗㅜㅡㅣㅐㅔㅚㅟ / a eo o u eu i ae oe wi ㄱㄲㅋㄷㄸㅌㅂㅃㅍ/g,k kk k d,t tt t b,p pp p

Note1: The sounds ㄱ.ㄷ and ㅂ are transcribed respectively as g, d, and b when appearing before a vowel; they are transcribed as k, t, and p when followed by another consonant or forming the final sound of a word.
(They are Romanized as pronunciation in [ ].)

e.g. 구미 Gumi 옥천 Okcheon 한밭 Hanbat 백암 Baegam 호법 Hobeop 벗꽃 [벋꼳] beotkkot 영동Yeongdong 합덕 Hapdeok 월곶 [월곧] Wolgot

Note 2 : ㄹ is transcribed as r when followed by a vowel, and as l when followed by a consonant or when appearing at the end of a word. ㄹㄹ transcribed as ll.

e.g. 구리 Guri 설악 Seorak 철원 Cherwon 울릉 Ulleung 칠곡 Chilgok . 임실 Imsil

3. Special Provisions for Romanization

(1) When Korean sound values change as in the following cases, the results of those changes are Romanized as follows:
1. The case of assimilation of adjacent consonants

e.g. 백마 [뱅마] Baengma 종로 [종노] Jongno 별내 [별래] Byeollae 신문로 [신문노] Sinmunno 왕십리 [왕심니] Wangsimni 신라 [실라] Silla 백령 [뱅녕] Baengnyeong

2. The case of the epenthetic ㄴ and ㄹ.

e.g. 학여울 [항녀울] Hangnyeoul 알약 (알략) allyak

3. Cases of palatalization

e.g. 해돋이 haedoji 알같이 [알가치] gachi 맞히다 [마치다] machida

4. Cases where ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ are adjacent to ㅎ

e.g. 좋고 [조코] joko 놓다 [노타] nota 잡혀 [자펴] japyeo 낳지 [나치] nachi

However, aspirated sounds are not reflected in nouns where ㅎ follows ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ, as in the examples below.

e.g. 묵호 Mukho 집현전 Jiphyeonjeon

Note: Tense (or glottalized) sounds are not reflected in cases where morphemes are compounded, as in the examples below.

e.g. 압구정 Apgujeong 죽변 Jukbyeon 합정 Hapjeong 샛별 Saetbyeol 낙동강 Nakdonggang (Nakdong River) 낙성대 Nakseongdae 팔당 Paldang 울산 Ulsan

(2) The first letter is capitalized in proper names.

e.g 부산 Busan 세종 Sejong

APPENDIX: Metric Conversion Chart

Out of Metric Length

mm x 0.04=inches cm x O.4=inches meters x 3.3=feet km x 0.62=miles

Into Metric Length

inches x 2.54=cm feet x 30=cm yards x 0.91 =meters miles x 1.6=km


sq. cm x 0.16=sq. inches sq. meters x 1.2=sq. yards sq. km x O.4=sq. miles hectares x 2.4 7=acres acres x O.4=hectares


sq. inches x 6.5=sq. cm sq. feet x 0.09=sq. meters sq. yards x 0.8=sq. meters sq. miles x 2.6=sq. km


grams x 0.035=ounces kg x 2.2=pounds metric tons x 1.1 =short tons


ounces x 28=grams pounds x 0.45=kg short tons x 0.9=metric tons


liters x 2.1 =pints liters x 1.06=quarts liters x 0.26=gallons cubic meters x 35=cubic feet cubic meters x 1.3=cubic yards


pints x 0.24=litters quarts x 0.95=litters gallons x 3.8=litters cubic feet x O.03=cubic meters cubic yards x 0.76=cubic meters


C x 9/5th + 32=F


(F-32) x 5/9th=C

APPENDIX: List of Acronyms

The following is a list of acronyms for international organizations, national organizations, military terms and ordinary words that can be used either on first or subsequent references. The acronyms that can be used on first reference carry an asterisk mark. The list is not exhaustive. In using acronyms that are not listed here, there is a simple test: Use them if they are widely recognized internationally and occur frequently in a story. Remember: acronyms are for the benefit of easy reading, not loose writing. Too many acronyms turn a story into a can of alphabet soups. See abbreviations, acronyms entry.

International organizations, treaties
>ABM treaty for Antiballistic missile treaty
*>ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Nations
>ARF for ASEAN Security Forum
*>APEC for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
>BIS for Bank for International Settlement, headquarters in Basel, Switzerland
>EU for European Union (as adjective)
>FAO for U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization
>IAEA for International Atomic Energy Agency, headquarters in Vienna
>ILO for International Labor Organization, headquarters in Geneva
>IMF for International Monetary Fund, headquarters in Washington
*>Intelsat for International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, headquarters in Washington
*>Interpol for International Criminal Police Organization, headquarters in Paris
>KEDO for Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization, headquarters in New York
>NATO for North Atlantic Treaty Organization, headquarters in Brussels
>NPT for Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
>OECD for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, headquarters in Paris
*>OPEC for Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
>SAARC for South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
>SCO for Shanghai Cooperation Organization
>U.N. for United Nations, headquarters in New York (as adjective)
*>UNESCO for United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, headquarters in Paris (A subsequent reference should give the full name)
*>UNICEF for United Nations Children's Fund (A subsequent reference should give the full name)
>WHO for World Health Organization, headquarters in Geneva
>World Bank for International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
>world court (lower case) for International Court of Justice, headquarters in The Hague. The Permanent Court of International Justice of the League of Nations was known as the World Court (upper case)
>WTO for World Trade Organization, headquarters in Geneva

South Korean political parties
>DP for Democratic Party
>UPP for United Progressive Party
> PJP for Progressive Justice Party

Note: Spell out the proper names of all political parties on first reference, if their acronym is used on second reference.

United States
*>U.S. for the United States (as adjective only)
>CDC for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
>CIA for Central Intelligence Agency
>FBI for Federal Bureau of Investigation
>IRS for Internal Revenue Service
*>NASA for National Aeronautics and Space Administration

>JCP for Japanese Communist Party
>LDP for Liberal Democratic Party
>SDP for Social Democratic Party
>DPJ for Democratic Party of Japan
>JETRO for Japan External Trade Organization
>BOJ for Bank of Japan
>SDF for Self-Defense Forces
>ASDF for Air Self-Defense Force
>GSDF for Ground Self-Defense Force
>MSDF for Maritime Self-Defense Force

Common terminologies
*>A.D. for anno Domini
*>AM (radio) for amplitude modulation system of radio transmission
*>AIDS for acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
>ATM for automated teller machine
>AWOL for absent without leave
>BSE for bovine spongiform encephalopathy
*>BC for Before Christ
>CD for compact disc
*CD-ROM for compact disk read-only memory
*>CT scan (CT stands for computerized tomography)
*>DTT for the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
*>DVD for digital video disc (the term later evolved into digital versatile disc)
*>FM for frequency modulation system of radio transmission
*>GDP for gross domestic product
*>GMT for Greenwich Mean Time
*>GNP for gross national product
*>HIV for human immunodeficiency virus
*>IOU/s for I owe you
*>IQ for intelligence quotient
*>IP telephone for Internet protocol telephone
>kph for kilometers per hour
>LCD for liquid crystal display
>LNG for liquefied natural gas
>LPG for liquefied petroleum gas
>ODA for official development assistance, a government foreign-aid program
>PC for personal computer
>POW/POWs for prisoner/s of war
>PTA for parent-teacher association
*>SARS for severe acute respiratory syndrome
*>TNT for trinitrotoluene
*UFO/UFOs for unidentified flying object/s
*>VIP/VIPs for very important person/s

Corporate Names
>GM for General Motors Corp.
>GE for General Electric Co.
>JR for Japan Railway
>JT for Japan Tobacco
>KORAIL for Korea Railroad Corp.
>KNTO for Korea National Tourism Corp.
>KEPCO for Korea Electric Power Corp.
>NTT for Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Co.

Military terms
>ABM/ABMs for anti-ballistic missile/s
>AWACS for airborne warning and control system
>ICBM/ICBMs for intercontinental ballistic missile/s

>AIP for Afghan Islamic Press
>AP for Associated Press, headquarters in New York
>APP for Associated Press of Pakistan, run by the Pakistani government
*>BBC for British Broadcasting Corp.
>CNA for Central News Agency, headquarters in Taipei
*>CNN for Cable News Network
>IRNA for Islamic Republic News Agency, run by the Iranian government
*>KBS for Korea Broadcasting System, headquarters in Seoul
*>MBC for Munhwa Broadcasting Corp., headquarters in Seoul
*>NHK for Nihon Hoso Kyokai, or Japan Broadcasting Corp.
>PTI for Press Trust of India. India's PTI news agency
>KCNA for Korean Central News Agency, North Korea

APPENDIX: List of Chronologies

Chronology of major political events in S. Korea in the last two decades

The following is a chronology of major political events in South Korea from 1993 to 2012.

Feb. 25, 1993: Kim Young-sam, a long-time dissident leader, is sworn in as the 14th president of the country, becoming the first civilian leader after decades of military-backed rule.

March 8, 1993: President Kim Young-sam disbands Hanahoe, an elite military faction led by former presidents Chun Doo-hwan and Roh Tae-woo.

Nov. 24, 1995: President Kim Young-sam launches an investigation into the deadly crackdown on a civilian uprising in the southwestern city of Gwangju in May 1980. The government officially maintains that about 200 people were killed in the crackdown, though some put the estimate higher.

April 17, 1997: The Supreme Court sentences former President Chun Doo-hwan to life imprisonment and former President Roh Tae-woo to 17 years in jail.

April 20, 1997: Hwang Jang-yop, a former aide to North Korean leader Kim Jong-il who is known as the main architect of the North’s “juche” ideology, arrives in Seoul after defecting from the North earlier in the year.

Nov. 21, 1997: South Korea asks for a bailout from the International Monetary Fund during the Asian financial crisis.

Dec. 22, 1997: Former presidents Chun Doo-hwan and Roh Tae-woo are released from prison on a special pardon.

Feb. 25, 1998: Kim Dae-jung, a lifetime democratic fighter and dissident leader, is sworn in as the 15th president of the country.

June 16, 1998: Chung Ju-young, the founder of Hyundai Group, visits North Korea, becoming the first South Korean civilian to be allowed to visit the North through the truce village of Panmunjom in the Demilitarized Zone separating the two Koreas.

June 13, 2000: South Korean President Kim Dae-jung and North Korean leader Kim Jong-il hold the first-ever inter-Korean summit in Pyongyang. The two agree to increase economic and social exchanges and hold reunions of family members separated before and during the 1950-53 Korean War.

Jan. 26, 2001: The Supreme Court rules that it was illegal for civic activists to launch campaigns against conservative parties in the 16th general elections.

Feb. 28, 2002: A group of lawmakers announce the names of 700 people they labeled "Japanese collaborators" for allegedly suppressing fellow Koreans during Japan's 1910-45 colonial rule.

June 21, 2002: Prosecutors arrest President Kim Dae-jung's second son, Kim Hong-up, on charges of receiving bribes from several companies.

Nov. 25, 2002: Chung Mong-joon, the presidential candidate of the National Alliance 21 Party, throws support behind his Millennium Democratic Party rival Roh Moo-hyun in a bid to swing voters away from the conservative Grand National Party.

Feb. 14, 2003: President Kim Dae-jung apologizes for allowing Hyundai Merchant Marine Co. to illicitly transfer funds to North Korea prior to the 2000 inter-Korean summit.

Feb. 25, 2003: Roh Moo-hyun, a former human rights lawyer, is sworn in as the 16th president of the country.

April 2, 2003: South Korea's National Assembly approves a motion bill on sending non-combat troops to the U.S.-led war in Iraq.

March 12, 2004: South Korea's two main opposition parties submit a parliamentary motion to impeach President Roh Moo-hyun, citing a breach of election rules. A total of 193 out of 195 lawmakers back the motion.

April 15, 2004: The ruling Uri Party gains a majority vote at the general elections, winning 152 seats in the 299-member National Assembly.

Oct. 21, 2004: The Constitutional Court declares President Roh Moo-hyun’s proposal to move South Korea's administrative capital out of Seoul unconstitutional.

July 25, 2005: Samsung Group apologizes after a wiretapped conversation between a Samsung official and the JoongAng Ilbo president reveals that South Korea’s leading conglomerate sought to make illegal campaign donations during the 1997 presidential race.

Jan. 1, 2007: South Korean diplomat Ban Ki-moon begins term as the eighth U.N. Secretary General, becoming the second Asian to serve the post.

Dec. 19, 2007: CEO-turned-politician Lee Myung-bak is elected president following a landslide victory.

May 2, 2008: Tens of thousands of people hold a candlelight demonstration against the government’s beef import deal with Washington, citing mad cow disease fears.

April 11, 2012: The ruling Saenuri Party wins an outright majority in the general elections, gaining 152 of the total 300 seats against the main opposition Democratic United Party’s 127 seats.

Sept. 19, 2012: Software engineer-turned-professor Ahn Cheol-soo declares his presidential candidacy, putting an end to long-running speculation about his political ambitions and turning the year's presidential race into a three-way competition with Park Geun-hye of the ruling Saenuri Party and Moon Jae-in of the main opposition Democratic United Party.

Nov. 23, 2012: Independent presidential candidate Ahn Cheol-soo declares his withdrawal from the presidential election after failing to merge votes with Moon Jae-in of the main opposition Democratic United Party.

Feb. 25, 2013: Park takes oath of office as the 18th president of South Korea.

Chronology of major events related to N. Korean nuke, missile issue

The following is a list of major events related to North Korean nuclear and missile issues.

Dec. 1952: Pyongyang establishes the Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Academy of Sciences 1969: According to Chinese intelligence reports, Pyongyang begins to develop a nuclear weapons program.

Sept. 1974: North Korea joins the International Atomic Energy Agency and allows it to monitor the country's nuclear program development.

July 20, 1977: North Korea signs a safeguards agreement with the IAEA and the USSR.

Dec. 12, 1985: North Korea accedes to the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT).

1986: North Korea puts its Yongbyon reactor into operation after seven years of construction.

Dec. 31, 1991: Pyongyang and Seoul sign the Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, agreeing they would “not test, manufacture, produce, receive, possess, store, deploy or use nuclear weapons."

March 6, 1992: The United States imposes sanctions on North Korea for missile proliferation activities.

April 1, 1993: The IAEA declares that North Korea is not complying with its safeguards agreement.

June 13, 1994: North Korea announces its withdrawal from the IAEA.

Oct. 21, 1994: The U.S. and North Korea sign the Agreed Framework in Geneva, whereby Pyongyang agrees to replace its nuclear reactors with water reactors provided by the U.S. in return for full normalization of political and economic relations between the two.

April 21-22, 1996: The United States and North Korea hold their first round of bilateral missile talks in Berlin.

Aug. 31, 1998: North Korea launches Taepodong-1, its first long-range rocket with a range of 1,500-2,000 kilometers, part of which flies over Japan and into the Pacific Ocean. .

May 20-24, 1999: A U.S. inspection team visits North Korea’s suspected nuclear site in Kumchang-ri but finds no evidence of nuclear activity or violation of the Agreed Framework.

Jan. 29, 2002: President Bush calls North Korea, along with Iran and Iraq, an “axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world.”

Oct. 16, 2002: The U.S. announces that North Korea has admitted having a uranium enrichment program for the first time.

Dec. 22-24, 2002: North Korea cuts all seals and disrupts IAEA surveillance equipment on its nuclear facilities and materials.

Jan. 10, 2003: North Korea announces its withdrawal from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT).

April 23-25, 2003: The United States, North Korea and China hold trilateral talks in Beijing, during which North Korea admits to possessing nuclear weapons.

Aug. 27-29, 2003: The first round of six-party talks, which involve the United States, China, Russia, Japan and the two Koreas, is held in Beijing.

Feb. 25-28, 2004: A second round of six-party talks takes place in Beijing.

June 23-26, 2004: A third round of six-party talks is held in Beijing. For the first time the United States presents a detailed proposal for resolving the crisis.

Feb. 10, 2005: North Korea’s Foreign Ministry announces that Pyongyang has produced nuclear weapons.

July 26-Aug. 7, 2005: The fourth round of six-party talks begins in Beijing.

Nov. 9-11, 2005: The fifth round of six-party talks begins in Beijing.

July 4-5, 2006: North Korea test fires the long-range Taepodong-2 missile that lands in the East Sea. South Korea and Japan respond by imposing sanctions and halting food aid to the country.

July 15, 2006: The U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 1695 condemning North Korea’s missile launches.

Oct. 9, 2006: North Korea conducts its first underground nuclear test.

Oct. 14, 2006: The U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution 1718, placing additional sanctions on the North's economic and commercial activities.

March 19-22, 2007: The sixth round of the six-party talks begins in Beijing.

April 5, 2009: North Korea launches the three-stage Unha-2 rocket viewed as a ballistic missile. The rocket flew over northeast Japan and fell into the Pacific Ocean.

April 13, 2009: The U.N. Security Council condemns Pyongyang's April rocket launch.

April 14, 2009: North Korea declares its withdrawal from the six-party talks in response to the U.N. Security Council statement.

May 25, 2009: North Korea carries out its second nuclear test.

July 16, 2009: The U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 1874 to condemn the nuclear test and tighten sanctions on North Korea.

Nov. 12, 2010: North Korea unveils its massive uranium enrichment facility at Yongbyon complex to visiting American nuclear scientist Siegfried Hecker.

Feb. 29, 2012: North Korea agrees with the United States to suspend uranium enrichment and allow the monitoring of its nuclear plant in return for food aid from the U.S.

April 13, 2012: North Korea's attempt to launch a satellite using the Unha-3 rocket to mark the birthday of the North’s founder Kim Il-sung fails. The United States cancels its food aid plans for North Korea.

April 16, 2012: The U.N. Security Council condemns North Korea's attempted satellite launch.

Dec. 12, 2012: North Korea draws criticism from the international community by launching the Unha-3 rocket and successfully putting a satellite into orbit, which Seoul and Washington believe is a covert test of banned ballistic missile technology.

Jan. 22, 2013: The U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 2087 in response to North Korea's Dec. 12 satellite launch.

Jan. 24, 2013: Pyongyang announces it will conduct another nuclear test and continue its rocket launches.

Feb. 12, 2013: North Korea carries out a third nuclear test at the Punggye-ri nuclear site.

March 7, 2013: The U.N. Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 2094 in response to North Korea's third nuclear test, imposing new sanctions on cash transfers and travel for diplomats.

Chronology of major events related to inter-Korean relations

The following is a list of major events related to inter-Korean relations.

Aug. 15, 1945: Korea is liberated from the Japanese colonial rule following Japan's defeat in World War II. U.S. troops occupy the area south of the 38th parallel while Soviet troops occupy the northern area.

Aug. 15, 1948: The Republic of Korea, the official name of South Korea, is proclaimed in the South.

Sept. 9, 1948: The Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the official name of North Korea, is proclaimed in the North.

June 25, 1950: The Korean War breaks out when North Korean troops invade the South.

July 27, 1953: The Armistice Agreement ending the 1950-53 Korean War is signed by the United States, North Korea and China. The agreement draws a border near the 38th parallel and creates the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), which separates the two Koreas, as a buffer zone.

Sept. 1971 to 1972: The two Koreas hold their first dialogue through the Red Cross and issue a joint statement on July 4, 1972 calling for peaceful reunification.

Oct. 9, 1983: Seventeen high-ranking South Korean officials, including two Cabinet members, are killed by a bomb at the Martyr's Mausoleum in Rangoon, Burma. The officials were accompanying then President Chun Doo-hwan, who was unhurt, on a visit to the Southeast Asian country. Burma, now called Myanmar, blamed North Korea for the bombing after capturing several North Korean agents and severed diplomatic ties with Pyongyang.

Sept. 1984: North Korea’s provides relief supplies to South Korea’s flood victims.

Nov. 15, 1984: The first South-North economic talks take place in the border village of Panmunjom.

Jan. 1986: North Korea unilaterally declares suspension of all talks with South Korea, citing South Korea-U.S. joint military drill “Team Spirit” as the reason.

Nov. 29, 1987: North Korean agent Kim Hyun-hee bombs a Korean Air jetliner near Burma, now Myanmar, killing 115 people on board.

July 7, 1988: South Korean President Roh Tae-woo makes a proclamation calling for new efforts to promote inter-Korean relations through enhanced economic trade, family reunification and engagement in international forums.

Sept. 17, 1991: North and South Korea join the United Nations together.

Dec. 31, 1991: The two Koreas sign the South-North Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. Under the declaration, both countries agree not to “test, manufacture, produce, receive, possess, store, deploy or use nuclear weapons.”

April 5, 1996: North Korea renounces the armistice and sends troops into the DMZ.

Sept. 18, 1996: A North Korean submarine is found stranded at Gangneung, a South Korean port city 240 kilometers east of Seoul.

Feb. 1998: President Kim Dae-jung outlines his so-called “sunshine policy,” which seeks rapprochement with North Korea through provision of generous aid to Pyongyang as parts of efforts to defuse tensions on the Korean Peninsula.

Nov. 18, 1998: Hyundai Group kicks off the Mount Kumgang tour project by sending a luxury cruise from the South Korean port of Donghae to the scenic mountain on North Korea's east coast. Later, the scenic mountain on North Korea’s eastern coast is the site of a South Korean-run resort visited by South Korean tourists via an overland route across the DMZ

June 13-15, 2000: South Korean President Kim Dae-jung and North Korean leader Kim Jong-il hold the first inter-Korean summit in Pyongyang. Following the summit, the two sides sign a Joint declaration of agreements on promoting more economic and cultural exchanges and realizing peaceful unification.

Aug. 15-18, 2000: The two Koreas arrange for the first reunion of family members separated before and during the 1950-53 Korean War.

Feb. 2003: New President Roh Moo-hyun inherits his predecessor Kim Dae Jung’s policy of engagement with the North. June 30, 2003: The two Koreas begin to construct an inter-Korean industrial complex in the North Korean border city of Kaesong.

Oct. 2-4, 2007: South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong-il hold the second inter-Korean summit in Pyongyang. The summit concludes with a joint declaration in which the two sides agree to strive for peaceful reunification.

Dec. 19, 2007: Lee Myung-bak is inaugurated as South Korean President. He turns away his predecessors’ policy of engagement and takes a hard-line approach to North Korea.

Jul 11, 2008: A South Korean woman is shot to death by a North Korean soldier while taking a part in a tour to the Mount Kumgang resort on the North’s east coast. South Korea suspends the Kumgang tourism immediately.

Jan. 24, 2010: Pyongyang threatens war with South Korea in response to Seoul’s statement that South Korea would make a preemptive attack at North Korea if it sees a threat of a nuclear strike.

March 26, 2010: The South Korean patrol ship Cheonan is sunk near the maritime border with North Korea, leaving 46 sailors dead.

May 20, 2010: South Korea makes a formal accusation against North Korea for sinking the Cheonan with a torpedo attack but North Korea denies any involvement.

May 24, 2010: Seoul suspends all trade and aid to North Korea in response to Pyongyang’s sinking of the Cheonan. North Korea says it will cut all links to South Korea in retaliation for the sanctions.

Nov. 23, 2010: North Korea fires artillery rounds at South Korea’s western island of Yeonpyeong, which borders North Korea, killing two soldiers and two civilians. South Korea suspends all Red Cross talks with North Korea and places a travel ban on trips to the Kaesong Industrial Complex.

March 4, 2011: South Korea’s major government and business Web sites come under massive cyber attacks, also known as the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. North Korea is accused of orchestrating the attacks.

Dec. 12, 2012: North Korea successfully launches the Unha-3 long-range rocket. Seoul, Washington and others condemn the launch as a covert test of banned ballistic missile technology.

Feb. 12, 2013: Korea carries out a third nuclear test at the Punggye-ri nuclear site.

March 11, 2013: North Korea declares that the Armistice Agreement is null and that it will no longer respect non-aggression pacts signed with South Korea. South Korea condemns the move, saying that the agreement cannot be terminated unilaterally.

March 27, 2013: North Korea severs the military hotline with the South, which is used to facilitate cross-border movement of personnel and cargo.

April 3, 2013: North Korea bans South Korean workers from entering the industrial park in Kaesong but permits people to leave and cross over the DMZ that separates the two Koreas.

April 9, 2013: All 53,000 North Korean workers fail to show up for work, halting all production at the 123 South Korean factories in the complex.

April 11, 2013: South Korean Unification Minister Ryoo Kihl-jae issues a statement calling for talks with North Korea. President Park Geun-hye also stresses the need for inter-Korean dialogue.

April 14, 2013: North Korea rejects Seoul's call for talks to resolve the standoff over the suspended operations of the Kaesong Industrial Complex.

April 26, 2013: South Korea decides to withdraw all of its workers from the complex after North Korea rejected its offer of talks to resolve the standoff.

May 3, 2013: The last seven South Korean personnel staying behind in Kaesong to settle various financial accounts for local businesses leave the industrial complex and return home, effectively shutting down the Kaesong Industrial Complex that has been in operation for just under 10 years.

Chronology of major events related to S. Korea-U.S. relations

The following is a chronology of major events related to South Korea and U.S. relations.

May 22, 1882: Korea and the United States engage in first official diplomatic interactions, signing the Treaty of Peace, Amity, Commerce and Navigation.

Sept. 7, 1945: The United States establishes a military government occupying the southern half of the Korean Peninsula following the end of Japan’s colonial rule of Korea.

June 25, 1950: The United States and other countries pass a U.N. Security Council resolution authorizing military intervention in the Korean War, which occurs the same day North Korea invades South Korea.

July 27, 1953: Representatives of North Korea, China and the United States sign an armistice agreement to end the Korean War.

Oct. 1, 1953: South Korea and the United States sign a Mutual Defense Treaty, creating the basis of South Korean adherence with U.S. government consultations on North Korean policy.

July 9, 1966: South Korea and the United States sign a Status of Forces Agreement stipulating the treatment of U.S. Forces in South Korea.

Nov. 19, 1993: South Korea and the United States participate in the first summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum.

1976-93: South Korea and the United States hold a joint military drill called Team Spirit annually to prepare for possible contingencies on the Korean Peninsula.

Nov. 7, 1978: South Korea and the United States agree to establish a Combined Forces Command.

Sept. 27 1991: U.S. President George W.H. Bush orders the U.S. military to withdraw all tactical nuclear weapons from South Korea.

Oct. 21, 1994: South Korea and the United States cancel Team Spirit exercises to encourage North Korea to dismantle its nuclear program.

May 8, 1995: South Korea and the United States conduct a joint military drill called Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration of Forces (RSOI), previously known as Team Spirit.

June 13, 2002: A U.S. armored vehicle runs over and kills two Korean girls in a northern suburb of Seoul.

Nov. 27, 2002: U.S. Ambassador to South Korea Thomas Hubbard relays a message of U.S. President George W. Bush to South Korea and its people that offers an apology over the deaths of the two girls.

Aug. 27, 2003: South Korea, the United States, Japan, China, Russia and North Korea hold their first round of six-party talks aimed at denuclearizing the North.

Feb. 24, 2007: South Korea and the United States agree to dissolve the Combined Forces Command and transfer wartime operational control (OPCON) over the military forces to South Korea starting from April 2012. Control of South Korean forces in both peacetime and war was placed in the hands of the U.S.-led U.N. Command shortly after the outbreak of the 1950-1953 Korean War. Seoul regained peacetime OPCON in 1994.

April 2, 2007: South Korea and the United States sign a free trade agreement.

March 2, 2008: South Korea and the United States conduct Key Resolve military drills, previously known as the RSOI.

May 2, 2008: South Koreans hold the first candlelight vigil opposing the resumption of U.S. beef imports over concerns of mad cow disease.

June 27, 2010: South Korea and the United States agree to postpone the scheduled transfer of wartime operational control from the U.S. to the South to December 2015.

March 15, 2012: The South Korea-United States Free Trade Agreement enters into force.

Chronology of major events related to S. Korea-China relations

The following is a chronology of major events related to South Korea and China relations

Oct. 25, 1950: China sends 260,000 troops to help North Korea battle South Korea and its allies during the Korean War.

July 26, 1953: North Korea, China and the United States sign an armistice agreement to end the Korean War.

May 4, 1983: A hijacked Chinese airliner makes an emergency landing in South Korea, prompting officials from both sides to make their first diplomatic contact to negotiate how to handle the six Chinese hijackers.

July 7, 1988: Seoul announces that it will now refer to China by its official name, the People's Republic of China.

Aug. 24, 1992: South Korea severs diplomatic ties with Taiwan and establishes relations with China. China opens its embassy in Seoul two days later.

Sept. 27, 1992: South Korean President Roh Tae-woo meets his Chinese counterpart, Yang Shangkun, to hold the first summit between the two countries.

March 28, 1994: South Korean President Kim Young-sam holds a summit with Chinese President Jiang Zemin in Beijing, concluding a cultural agreement and a double taxation prevention agreement.

Nov. 13, 1995: Chinese President Jiang Zemin begins a five-day state visit to South Korea at the invitation of South Korean President Kim Young-sam.

Nov. 13, 1998: South Korean President Kim Dae-jung and Chinese President Jiang Zemin hold a summit in Beijing. The two countries establish a cooperative partnership to expand their economy-oriented relations to political, cultural, social and military spheres.

June 8, 2000: China places a temporary import ban on South Korean cellular phones and polyethylene, saying South Korea unilaterally hiked the tariff for Chinese garlic in violation of regulations set by the World Trade Organization.

July 31, 2000: South Korea and China sign a trade agreement in Beijing, under which China agrees to lift the import ban on South Korean cellular phones and polyethylene and South Korea to lower tariffs on Chinese-made garlic.

End of 2004: China becomes South Korea’s the biggest trading partner by trade volume.

Jan. 27, 2005: South Korea’s Foreign Ministry calls in China's ambassador to Seoul to protest Beijing's repatriation of a former South Korean soldier to North Korea, who was taken prisoner during the 1950-53 Korean War.

Nov. 15, 2005: South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun holds a summit with Chinese President Hu Jintao in Seoul.

May 27, 2008: South Korean President Lee Myung-bak holds a summit with Chinese President Hu Jintao in Beijing. The two countries agree to elevate their bilateral relations from the existing comprehensive and cooperative partnership to a "strategic and cooperative partnership."

October, 2010: The number of Chinese residents in South Korea tops 600,000.

Dec. 12, 2011: A Chinese fisherman kills a South Korean Coast Guard officer during a raid on a Chinese ship that had been fishing illegally in the Yellow Sea off Incheon, west of Seoul, heightening diplomatic tensions between the two countries.

Chronology of major events related to S. Korea-Japan relations

The following is a chronology of major events related to South Korea and Japan relations.

Feb. 26, 1876: Korea and Japan sign an unequal treaty granting Japanese citizens extraterritorial rights and opening three ports to Japanese trade.

Jan. 17, 1905: Korea and Japan sign the Eulsa Protective Treaty, depriving Korea of diplomatic sovereignty and making it a protectorate of Japan.

Aug. 22, 1910: Japan annexes Korea with the signing of an official treaty.

Aug. 29, 1910: Japan officially declares its colonial rule of Korea.

March 1, 1919: South Korean independence activists stage a nationwide protest against Japanese colonial rule.

Aug. 15, 1945: Japan surrenders to the Allied forces and relinquishes control over Korea.

Sept. 25, 1954: Japan suggests settling the Dokdo issue with the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for the first time.

June 22, 1965: South Korea and Japan sign the Treaty on Basic Relations, normalizing diplomatic ties and declaring all treaties signed on or before Aug. 22, 1910 “already null and void.”

Jan. 30, 1974: South Korea and Japan sign an agreement to jointly develop the continental shelf spanning 84,000 square-kilometers southeast of Jeju Island.

Aug. 4, 1993: Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono makes an official statement acknowledging and expressing apology for the coercion of young women into sexual slavery by the Japanese Imperial Army.

Aug. 15, 1995: Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama makes an apology statement for the atrocities committed by the Japanese Imperial Army.

Sept. 25, 1998: Japan unilaterally abolishes the 1965 fishery pact with South Korea to claim its Exclusive Economic Zone.

April 3, 2001: Japan’s Ministry of Education approves a controversial history textbook that downplays the nature of Japanese atrocities during World War II.

Aug. 13, 2001: Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi makes a controversial visit to the Yasukuni Shrine which honors Japan’s war dead including Class A war criminals.

Jan. 1, 2004: South Korea lifts all bans on Japanese cultural imports.

March 16, 2005: Japan’s Shimane Prefecture enacts "Takeshima Day,” promoting Tokyo's territorial claim over South Korea’s easternmost islets Dokdo.

June 1, 2005: South Korean skipper trespasses into Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zone.

Aug. 2, 2005: Japan claims Dokdo as its territory for the first time in its defense white paper.

March 1, 2007: Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe denies the forced coercion of young women into sexual slavery during World War II.

Aug. 10, 2012: President Lee Myung-bak visits Dokdo, a first for a South Korean president.

Aug. 30, 2012: Japan announces plans to unilaterally take the issue of Dokdo to the ICJ.

Chronology of major events related to S. Korea-Russia relations

The following is a list of major events related to South Korea and Russia relations.

July 7, 1884: Korea and Russia sign their first trade treaty in Seoul, concerning tariff rules, extraterritorial rights and bans on smuggling trade. Korea also grants a most favored nation status to Russia.

Feb. 1885: Korea tries to sign a secret pact with Russia to fend off Japan and China’s increasing presence in the country but fails to do so after Japan and Britain intervene.

Aug. 2,886: Korea makes another botched attempt to contract a secret agreement with Russia to seek protection against

China’s growing interference in Korea’s internal affairs.

June 1950–July 1953: Throughout the Korean War, the Soviet Union provides various aid to the North Korean and Chinese armies to battle South Korea and its allies.

June 23, 1973: South Korean President Park Chung-hee offers to open peaceful relations with the Soviet Union and other communist countries in a special statement.

June 5, 1990: South Korean President Roh Tae-woo and Soviet Union President Mikhail Gorbachev hold the first bilateral summit in San Francisco.

Sept. 30, 1990: South Korea establishes full diplomatic ties with the Soviet Union.

Dec. 13-15, 1990: South Korean President Roh Tae-woo meets Soviet Union President Mikhail Gorbachev in Moscow.

Sept. 16, 1991: South Korea and the Soviet Union sign their first fisheries agreement.

Dec. 27, 1991: Seoul recognizes the independence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

Dec. 30, 1991: Seoul recognizes 10 member states under the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Nov. 18-20, 1992: Russian President Boris Yeltsin makes an official visit to South Korea and meets South Korean President Roh Tae-woo.

July 8, 1997: The first South Korea-Russia joint economic commission takes place in Seoul.

July 24, 1997: Seoul and Moscow sign an agreement to set up a special communications link between Russian and South Korean presidents.

Dec. 2000: With Russian assistance, South Korea begins construction of the Naro Space Center in Goheung on South Korea’s south coast.

Feb. 26-28, 2001: Russian President Vladimir Putin visits Seoul for a summit meeting with South Korean President Kim Dae-jung.

Aug. 2002: South Korea and Russia confirm plans to develop the Korea Space Launch Vehicle-1 (KSLV-1) rocket and begin design and construction work, with a launch planned for 2005.

Sept. 21-24, 2004: South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun visits Moscow to meet his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin. Sept. 21, 2004: South Korea and Russia sign a space technology cooperation pact.

Nov. 18-19, 2005: Russian President Vladimir Putin meets South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun at the summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in Busan, South Korea.

Sept. 28, 2008: South Korean President Lee Myung-bak visits his Russian counterpart Dmitry Medvedev. The two leaders agree to send Russian natural gas through a pipeline to South Korea via North Korea starting in 2015.

Sept. 9-10, 2010: South Korean President Lee Myung-bak visits his counterpart Dmitry Medvedev in Russia to discuss economic and security issues.

Nov. 9, 2010: Russian President Dmitry Medvedev meets his South Korean counterpart Lee Myung-bak during his visit to Seoul for the summit of the Group of 20 major economies.

Nov. 1-2, 2011: South Korean President Lee Myung-bak makes a two-day visit in Saint Petersburg, Russia, to hold talks with his Russian counterpart Dmitry Medvedev. They agree to build a massive gas pipe line linking the two countries via North Korea.

March 26, 2012: Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visits South Korean President Lee Myung-bak in Seoul. The two leaders agree that North Korea should concentrate on improving the basic lives of its people rather than developing a rocket.

Sept. 8, 2012: South Korean President Lee Myung-bak meets his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin during the APEC summit in Vladivostok, Russia.

Jan. 30, 2013 -- South Korea successfully launches its space rocket Naro-1 from the Naro Space Center with Russian assistance and technical supervision.

Chronology of major events related to Japan’s history textbook issues

The following is a chronology of major events related to Japan’s history textbook issues.

April 1949: The Japanese government introduces the first centralized system of authorizing school textbooks.

June 1965: Saburo Ienaga, a prominent Japanese historian, files the first in his series of lawsuits against the Japanese Ministry of Education to fight against the government’s efforts to suppress details of Japan’s wartime atrocities from school history books.

June 1982: Japan’s education ministry sparks a diplomatic row after demanding during a screening process that a school textbook be revised to change the phrase “invaded China” to “advanced to China.” South Korea and China protest the move, saying it downplays the severity of Japan’s wartime atrocities.

Nov. 1982: Following South Korea and China’s backlash, Japan’s Ministry of Education adopts the so-called Neighboring Country Clause, advising all textbook publishers to maintain international harmony in their treatment of modern historical events involving neighboring Asian countries.

July 1986: Japan approves Shinpen Nihonshi (A New History of Japan) written by the right-wing National Congress to Defend Japan despite opposition from Seoul and Beijing. The textbook lists the full Imperial Rescript on Education, which espouses nationalist ideology based on emperor worship.

June 1996: All seven middle school textbooks in Japan start including discussions on the so-called comfort women following Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono’s official apology in 1993 for the sexual coercion they suffered.

April 2001: Japan approves eight controversial textbooks including one by the right-wing Japanese Society of History Textbook Reform, popularly known as Tsukurukai. The textbook argues that Japan’s invasion of Korea was necessary for national security and that some Koreans agreed to Japan’s annexation of Korea.

April 2002: Japan approves six high school textbooks including Saishin Nihonshi, the high school version of Shinpen Nihonshi.

March 2005: Japan’s Education Minister Nariaki Nakayama says Japan should claim South Korea’s easternmost islets of Dokdo in the revised Course of Study. Senior Vice Education Minister Hakubun Shimomura issues a statement saying that it is inappropriate to teach the topic of comfort women in middle and high schools.

April 2005: Japan approves a controversial history textbook by Fusosha Publishing that claims Dokdo as Japanese territory.

Dec. 2006: Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe revises the Fundamental Law of Education for the first time since 1947, placing a greater emphasis on instilling a sense of patriotism among students.

July 14, 2008: Japan revises the description of the middle school course of study, clarifying that South Korea and Japan hold differing opinions as to which country claims sovereignty over Dokdo.

March 9, 2009: Japan announces the Course of Study revision for high schools.

Dec. 25, 2009: Japan revises the description of the Course of Study for high schools stressing the importance of teaching Japan’s territorial issues from a nationalist point of view.

March 30, 2010: Japan approves five elementary school textbooks that all claim Dokdo as Japanese territory.

March 30, 2011: Japan approves 17 middle school social studies textbooks, 14 of which explain Dokdo as Japanese territory.

March 27, 2012: Japan approves 39 high school social studies textbooks, 21 of which claim Dokdo as part of Japanese territory. Twelve out of 19 history textbooks include discussions of the comfort women issue.

March 26, 2013: Japan approves 21 high school textbooks that describe Dokdo as Japanese territory.

Chronology of major events related to Japan’s claim to Dokdo

The following is a chronology of major events related to Japan’s claim to South Korea’s easternmost islets of Dokdo.

1877: In an instruction to the Shimane prefectural government, Japan’s Meiji government denies sovereignty over Dokdo, saying the islets “have no relations with the country.”

Jan. 28, 1905: Japan’s Cabinet unilaterally decides to incorporate Dokdo into its territory, naming it Takeshima.

Feb. 22, 1905: Japan’s Shimane Prefecture officially announces its incorporation of Dokdo.

Jan. 18, 1952: South Korean President Rhee Syng-man proclaims a new maritime border in the East Sea that includes Dokdo.

Sept. 3, 1962: Yujiro Iseki, a Japanese foreign ministry official, proposes blowing up Dokdo to settle disputes during South Korea-Japan diplomatic talks.

Feb. 5, 1977: Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda Takeo publicly claims Japan’s ownership of Dokdo.

Feb. 23, 2005: Japan's Shimane Prefecture designates Feb. 22 as Takeshima Day, promoting its claim over the islets.

March 17, 2005: Seoul reformulates its doctrine of relations with Tokyo, arguing that Japan’s claim over Dokdo is an attempt to extend its colonial aggression against South Korea.

April 26, 2005: South Korea passes a special legislation that allows Seoul to exercise enhanced control of the islets.

July 2005: Japan’s Ministry of Defense releases an annual white paper that describes the islets as Japanese territory for the first time.

April 14, 2006: The Japanese government announces a plan to conduct maritime research on waters near Dokdo.

April 18, 2006: South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun labels Japan's planned survey of waters surrounding Dokdo as an “offensive provocation.”

April 22, 2006: Japan agrees to cancel the maritime survey following an agreement with South Korea to resolve territorial disputes over Dokdo.

Aug. 1, 2011: Seoul bans three Japanese lawmakers from entering the country, claiming that their trip is aimed at reasserting Tokyo’s claim over Dokdo.

April 11, 2012: Dozens of Japanese lawmakers, including Japan’s vice foreign minister, attend a mass rally in Tokyo to promote Japan’s territorial claim over the islets.

Aug. 10, 2012: South Korean President Lee Myung-bak makes a landmark visit to Dokdo citing Japan’s unrepentant attitude toward its wartime aggressions. Lee becomes the first South Korean president to visit the islets.

Aug. 17, 2012: Seoul flatly rejects Tokyo’s proposal to take the Dokdo issue to the International Court of Justice, claiming South Korea’s sovereignty over the islets is “indisputable.”

Aug. 22, 2012: During a parliamentary session, Japanese Foreign Affairs Secretary Koichiro Gemba calls President Lee Myung-bak’s trip to Dokdo an “illegal occupation.”

Aug. 24, 2012: Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda tells reporters that Tokyo will address territorial issues with South Korea with "unflagging resolve.”

Sept. 7, 2012: South Korea conducts defense drills in waters near the islets to prepare for possible contingencies with Japan.

April 5, 2013: Tokyo issues an annual foreign policy report that reiterates Japan’s territorial claims to the islets.

Chronology of major accidents related to South Korea since 1940s.

The following is a chronology of major accidents and disasters in South Korea since the 1940s

Aug. 18, 1949: A train derails at Juknyeong Tunnel in the southeastern city of Yeongju, killing 46 people and injuring 101 others.

July 11, 1951: A passenger boat, the Pyeonri-ho No. 5, sinks off the port city of Busan, killing 80 people.

Jan. 9, 1953: A passenger boat, the Changgyeong-ho, sinks off the port city of Busan, killing 362 people.

Jan. 12, 1956: A fire on a passenger boat, the Taesin-ho, in the southeastern city of Sacheon kills 65 people.

Jan. 26, 1960: A fatal stampede at Seoul Station crushes 31 people to death and injures 40 others.

March 2, 1960: A fire at a rubber factory in the port city of Busan kills 62 people and injures 39 others.

Jan. 18, 1963: A passenger boat, the Yeon-ho, sinks off the southeastern coastal city of Mokpo, killing 140 people.

June 25. 1963: A landslide in the southeastern city of Geoje kills nine police officers and 60 civilians.

Jan. 1, 1967: A fire at a traditional market in the southeastern city of Daegu kills 41 people and injures 102 others.

Jan. 31, 1969: A train collision in the central city of Cheonan kills 41 people and injures 102 others.

April 8, 1970: An apartment in Seoul collapses, killing 33 people and injuring 39 others.

Aug. 21, 1970: An express bus veers off an express highway in Geumneung, North Gyeongsang Province, killing 25 people and injuring 22 others.

Oct. 14, 1970: A tourist bus hits a train in the central city of Asan, killing 46 people and injuring 30 others.

Dec. 15, 1970: A ferry, Namyeong-ho, sinks off Geomun Island in the South Sea, killing 310 people. The accident, in which only 12 passengers were rescued, marked the biggest maritime disaster in South Korea’s history.

May 10, 1971: A bus falls into Cheongpyeong Lake in Gapyeong, 60 kilometers east of Seoul, killing 80 people.

Dec. 25, 1971: A fire at Seoul's Daeyeongak Hotel kills 166 people and injures 88 others.

Dec. 2, 1972: A fire at Seoul Citizen’s Center kills 51 people and injures 76 others.

Aug. 18, 1973: A bus veers off Seoul’s Gwangjin Bridge, killing 17 people and injuring 28 others.

Nov. 11, 1977: An explosion at a train station in the southwestern city of Iksan kills 59 people and injures 1,343 others.

July 23, 1978: A bus veers off Hangang Bridge, killing 33 people and injuring 13 others.

May 14, 1981: A train collision in Gyeongsan, southeastern South Korea, kills 56 people and injures 244 others.

Nov. 22, 1981: A bus crashes at Mount Geumjeong in the port city of Busan, leaving 33 people dead and 36 others injured.

Sept. 1, 1983: A Soviet fighter jet shoots down a Korean airliner over Sakhalin Island, killing all 269 people onboard.

Aug. 31, 1984: A massive flood in Seoul’s Han River leaves 189 people dead and 150 others missing.

Jan. 14, 1984: A fire at a hotel in the port city of Busan kills 38 people and injures 68 others.

Jan. 11, 1985: A bus veers off the Yanggang Bridge in the central city of Yeongdong, killing 38 people.

April 1, 1988: A bus plunges off the Cheonho Bridge in Seoul, killing 19 people and injuring 35 others.

Sept. 17, 1989: A bus crash in Wanju, North Jeolla Province, kills 24 people and injures 61 others.

Oct. 27, 1989: An express bus collision at an expressway in the central city of Nonsan kills 16 people.

Sept. 1, 1990: A bus veers off a bridge over a river in Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, leaving 25 people dead and four others missing.

Nov. 4, 1990: A bus crashes into a lake in Inje, northeast of Seoul, killing 21 people and injuring 21 others.

March 28, 1993: A Busan-bound train from Seoul derails and overturns near Gupo Station, outside the southeastern port city. The accident leaves 78 people dead and 198 others injured.

April 19, 1993: A fire at a mental hospital in the central city of Nonsan kills 34 people.

June 10, 1993: A blast at an artillery range in the northern city of Yeoncheon kills 20 people and injures six others.

July 26, 1993: An Asiana Airlines Boeing 737 flying the Seoul-Mokpo route crashes near Mokpo Airport, killing 66 passengers and injuring 44 others.

Oct. 10, 1993: A 110-ton ferry sinks in waters off of Buan on South Korea's west coast, killing 268 people on board.

Oct. 21, 1994: The Seongsu Grand Bridge spanning the Han River collapses, killing 32 people and injuring 17 others.

Oct. 24, 1994: A fire breaks out on a cruise ship in the central city of Chungju, killing 25 people onboard.

Dec. 7, 1994: A gas explosion in Seoul’s Ahyeondong neighborhood kills 12 people and injures 101 others.

April 28, 1995: A massive gas explosion in the southeastern city of Daegu kills 101 people and injures 202 others.

June 29, 1995: Sampoong Department Store in southern Seoul collapses, killing 502 people and injuring 900 others. The building had undergone illegal remodeling and was not inspected by structural engineers.

June. 30, 1999: A fire breaks out in a three-story dormitory at the Sealand Summer Camp in Hwaseong, Gyeonggi Province, killing 23 people, including 19 pre-school children.

Oct. 30, 1999: A fire at a pub in Incheon, west of Seoul, kills 52 people and injures 71 others.

July 14, 2000: An eight-vehicle pileup on an expressway in the southeastern city of Gimcheon kills 18 people and injures 100 others.

Feb. 18, 2003: A mentally unstable man sets fire to a subway train of the Daegu Metropolitan Subway in the southeastern city of Daegu, which quickly spreads and kills 192 people, injuring 148 others.

Dec. 7, 2007: South Korea experiences the worst oil spill in its history, when an oil tanker collides with a crane barge in waters off Taean on South Korea's west coast, leaking about 15,000 tons of oil into waters, destroying ecologically valuable wetland areas and thousands of sea farms along the coastline.

Jan. 7, 2008: A fire breaks out at a cold storage warehouse in Icheon, 60 km south of Seoul, killing 40 and injuring nine others.

Feb. 10, 2008: A 70-year-old man sets a fire to Seoul's 600-year-old ancient gate Namdaemun, South Korea’s No.1 national treasure. The fire severely damages the structure, destroying the upper tower completely.

July 2011: A heavy rainfall hits Seoul, leaving 62 people dead and nine others missing.

Sept. 27. 2012: A poisonous gas leak at a chemical compound in the industrial city of Gumi, about 200 kilometers southeast of Seoul, kills five workers and injures four others.

Jan. 28. 2013: Highly poisonous hydrofluoric acid gas leaks at a semiconductor plant run by Samsung Electronics Co., killing one worker and injuring four others.